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Abstract

A physicist with the Theoretical Division of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Walter Goad became interested in molecular biology in the mid-1960s, devoting nearly all of his research to the analysis, storage and retrieval of information relating to nucleic acid sequences by the early 1970s. He was among the founders of GenBank, the world's first nucleic acid database, and was influential in the development of computational techniques for the analysis of DNA sequences. In the late 1980s, he served on the steering committee overseeing the establishment of the Human Genome Project. The Goad Papers relate primarily to the establishment and early operation of GenBank, the early phases of the Human Genome Project, and, more generally, to Goad's role as godfather of the new field of bioinformatics.

Background note

From his roots in the red clay soil of rural Georgia during the Depression, Walter Goad went on to a distinguished career in two disparate fields: nuclear weapons design and bioinformatics. Having lived in various towns in Georgia and graduating from Grainger High School in Kinston, N.C., in 1942, Goad set out to become a radio technician and expand his horizons by heading north for the first time. As would be true throughout his early years, his experience would be brief, but fruitful. Shortly after accepting a position with a station in Schenectady, N.Y., Goad was taken under the wing of his employer, who steered him toward college, helping arrange a scholarship at nearby Union College to make it all possible.

With America's entry in the Second World War, however, Goad's college plans changed. At the end of his freshman year, when he became eligible for the draft, Goad enlisted in the Navy and earned a spot in the V-12 officers' training program. The program allowed Goad, along with a small number of other candidates that included Baruch Blumberg, to continue toward his B.S. in physics, which he was awarded in the spring of 1945, just as the war was ending in Europe. His subsequent military career was nearly as brief as his career in radio. After an additional four months of training at midshipman's school in Annapolis, Goad was detached to the Pacific to complete his military obligation aboard a submarine chaser. By the following spring, his service was no longer needed, and he returned home to enter the University of California, Berkeley, as one of the horde of returning veterans pursuing a graduate degree in physics. The departure of Robert Oppenheimer later that year, however, took the luster off of Berkeley and as the appeal of the overtaxed program waned, Goad decided to transfer to Duke to work under the up and coming Lothar Nordheim on a project eventually titled A Theoretical Study of Extensive Cosmic Ray Air Showers (1954).

Yet again, Goad's path shifted. During the Spring 1950, Nordheim took a leave of absence to work at Los Alamos National Laboratory, inviting Goad to accompany him and complete his dissertation in New Mexico. Assigned to work with the Theoretical Division, Goad's first priority was to complete his dissertation, but he rapidly became a valued member of the design team working on the hydrogen bomb (he witnessed the first test on Eniwetok (Enewetak) Atoll in November 1952), and except for two sabbatical years, never again left the Laboratory. Goad's association with Los Alamos was personal, as well as professional: in 1952, he met and married Maxine Steineke, a graduate student in physics from Stanford working at the Laboratory with whom he had three children.

Although Goad's residence was firmly settled, his intellectual interests gradually evolved. By the early 1960s, he and a small number of colleagues at Los Alamos began to take up an interest in the emerging field of molecular biology. Spending a sabbatical year at the University of Colorado medical school (1964-1965) to strengthen his knowledge of the field, Goad began to apply himself to the challenges posed by the rapid accumulation of nucleic acid data, and after another sabbatical at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England (1970-1971), he turned his full efforts to molecular research. When George Bell created group T-10 at Los Alamos (Theoretical Biology and Biophysics) in 1974, Goad became one of its charter members.

To molecular biology, Goad brought a suite of quantitative skills and a strong knowledge of computing. As early as the late 1960s, he made efforts to address the problems associated with the storage, retrieval, and analysis of molecular data, conceiving of the computer as a central tool for collaborative and analytical work in molecular biology. Following a 1979 meeting at the Rockefeller University to discuss how these data could be managed and exploited, Goad and his Los Alamos colleagues established the Los Alamos Sequence Data Bank and began to develop software for sequence analysis. Goad conceived of expanding the database nationally and internationally.

With funding from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), among other agencies, the core facility at Los Alamos was expanded in collaboration with Bolt, Baranek, and Newman (BBN, the firm that had handled the construction of ARPANet in the late 1960s), and in 1982, the database was rechristened GenBank. The base of its operations remained at Los Alamos, as it was operated successively under the control of BBN (1982-1987), IntelliGenetics (1987-1992), and (since 1992) the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Goad also helped to establish a strong working relationship with parallel efforts in Europe (the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, EMBL) and Japan (DNA Database of Japan, DDBJ).

The success of GenBank in turn laid much of the groundwork for the Human Genome Project which followed in the late 1980s and 1990s. Begun formally in 1990 as an effort to identify, map, and sequence all of the genes in the human genome, the Human Genome Project benefited both conceptually and practically from GenBank, and Goad was an early member of the the Human Genome Advisory Panel.

For his efforts on behalf of GenBank, Goad received a Los Alamos National Laboratory Distinguished Service Award, and the Laboratory bestowed its highest honor, making him a Laboratory Fellow. He was also a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Walter Goad died of a stroke in Santa Fe on November 2, 2000.

Scope and content

The papers of Walter Goad, a nuclear physicist from Los Alamos Labs and pioneer in bioinformatics, consist of six linear feet of materials documenting the founding of GenBank and the early phases of the Human Genome Project. Bringing the quantitative skills of a physicist to bear on the problem of the analysis, storage and retrieval of molecular biological information, Goad was instrumental in the creation of the first nucleic acid sequence databank.

The collection is oriented almost exclusively toward the phase of Goad's career after he had taken up molecular biology. Apart from a small number of letters dating from the early 1940s, when Goad was seeking his first job, and an interesting response to the Federation of American Scientists' statement on hydrogen bomb testing from 1953, there is nothing to document his career prior to his conversion to DNA. The relatively limited correspondence (0.5 linear feet) in the Series I is primarily personal in nature, however Goad's extensive exchanges with his friend, Nobel laureate Sidney Altman, reveals a great deal about their mutual scientific interests and attitudes. Goad's stand on behalf of his Los Alamos colleague, Wen Ho Lee, accused of providing sensitive information on nuclear weapons to the People's Republic of China, is well documented.

Series II consists of correspondence, manuscripts, documents, notes, and printed materials directly or indirectly relating to GenBank, including planning documents, contracts for the construction of the databank, materials documenting the role of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in facilitating the project, information on "competitors" and colleagues, workshops and conferences, and correspondence with Bolt, Baranek and Newman, the contractor for database construction and distribution (and the firm who developed ARPANET, networking routers, and email, as well as introducing the @ sign).

Goad's role in the Human Genome Project was smaller, though still important, and Series III includes approximately one linear foot of manuscripts, correspondence, and notes relating to meeting of the Human Genome Project steering committee in the project's planning phases.

Series I. Correspondence and notes, 1942-2000(1 box; 0.5 linear feet)
Series II. Works by Goad, 1953-2000(1 box; 0.5 linear feet)
Series III. GenBank materials, 1979-1987(4 boxes; 2 linear feet)
Series IV. Human Genome Project, 1983-1993(2 boxes; 1 linear foot)
Series V. Conferences and workshops, 1980-1988(2 boxes; 1 linear foot)
Series VI. Biographical and personal, 1942-2001(1 box; 1 linear foot)
Series VII. Miscellaneous and photographs, 1945-2000(1 box; 1 linear foot)

Collection information

Provenance

The Goad Papers were donated to the APS in 2001 by Maxine S. Goad, through Chris Goad and Baruch Blumberg.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Walter B. Goad Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Catalogued by rsc, 2001.

Separated material

Two posters and a scrapbook are housed with oversized materials.

Index

Indexing Terms

Corporate Name(s)

  • Bolt, Baranek and Newman
  • CODATA
  • European Molecular Biology Laboratory
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • GenBank
  • Intelligenetics
  • Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
  • Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass.).

Personal Name(s)

  • Altman, Sidney, 1939-
  • Bell, George I.
  • Bitensky, Mark
  • Blumberg, Baruch S., 1925-
  • Brutlag, Douglas
  • Burks, Christian
  • Cantor, Charles R.
  • Comings, David E.
  • Dayhoff, Margaret O.
  • Fickett, James W.
  • Fitch, Walter M., 1929-2011
  • Gilbert, Walter
  • Goad, Maxine S.
  • Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000
  • Jordan, Elke
  • Kanehisa, Minoru
  • Lee, Wen Ho
  • Lerman, Leonard
  • Maxam, Allan M.
  • Moyzis, Robert K.
  • Puck, Theodore T., (Theodore Thomas), 1916-2005
  • Roberts, Richard J.
  • Smith, Temple F.
  • Teller, Edward, 1908-2003
  • Wada, Akiyoshi

Subject(s)

  • Bioinformatics
  • Gene mapping
  • Genomics
  • Human Genome Project
  • Hydrogen bomb
  • Molecular biology
  • Molecular genetics
  • Nucleic acid probes
  • Nucleotide sequence--Data processing
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Strategic Defense Initiative
  • Supercomputers
Collection overview
1942-2000 Request Series

Miscellaneous correspondence, reports, and legal documents of both a professional and personal nature. The most extensive body of correspondence consists of numerous email exchanges with Sidney Altman, a close friend and 1989 Nobel laureate in chemistry, and there are less extensive exchanges with Nobel laureates Baruch Blumberg and Max Perutz. While the correspondence with Altman is largely personal, both correspondents touch on a wide range of topics, from Ernst Mayr's alleged antipathy to molecular biology to hierarchical theories of evolution to current politics.

Goad's annual progress reports to Los Alamos provide interesting insight into the evolution of his views on molecular biology between the late 1960s and mid-1970s when his commitment to the field was consolidated and when he moved into Los Alamos group T-10, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics. Equally important is a series of files relating to what might have been the highest profile event of his career: his efforts on behalf of his Los Alamos colleague, Wen Ho Lee, who had been accused of supplying secret information about nuclear weapons research to the People's Republic of China. Goad took a prominent role in marshalling support among scientists and in the media, and supplied an affidavit (his "declaration") on behalf of Lee at trial.

  Request Series

Selected works, published and semi-published, by Goad from throughout his career. These include a copy of his dissertation, A Theoretical Study of Extensive Cosmic Ray Air Showers (Duke University, 1954), articles (not separately inventoried), book reviews, and reviews of grant and research proposals by peers.

  Request Series

Materials relating to the founding and first ten years of operation of GenBank, including general correspondence, correspondence with Bolt, Baranek and Newman (contractors for the database and networking operations), contracts with government agencies, and grant proposals.

As a member of the GenBank Advisory Group, Goad took part in meetings concerning the structuring of the database, its relationships with similar enterprises in the United States, Europe and Japan, and in reporting on its development. Along with selected minutes of the Advisory Group, the series includes memos and other documents submitted to Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to document GenBank-related activities, information on "competitors" and peers (e.g. Genet, MolGen, PROPHET, and Japanese nucleic acid data banks), studies of computing needs and facilities for GenBank, and users' manuals for submitting data to GenBank and using the database. Materials filed under EMBL consist primarily of correspondence and documents relating to meetings with EMBL and documents presented to Los Alamos to support requests for reimbursement.

The "Los Alamos Internal documents" include Goad's status reports to the Lab and his prospectuses for research and funding submitted to supervisors. These provide an important perspective on the internal support at Los Alamos for the development of GenBank and Among the more interesting manuscripts in the series are "Computer Storage and Analysis of DNA Sequences," 1982 (a status report to the Institutional Supporting Research and Development); "DNA as Molecular Processor," ca.1984 (proposal); "Identification of Functional Similarities in Nucleic Acid Sequences," 1984 (draft proposal), and a draft of Jim Fickett's "five year plan" for the redesign of GenBank, 1987. A printout of a program in FORTRAN for detecting homologous sequences, 1984, is a relic of an earlier era of programming.

  Request Series

Materials relating primarily to the planning stages for the Human Genome Project, many emanating from Goad's participation in the Advisory Panel. Goad attended several early planing workshops in which the sequencing and analytical technologies were fleshed out, with the intention of tapping newer technologies to scale up the mapping and sequencing enterprise, including polymerase chain reaction and the intensive use of computers and robotic approaches. In addition to a small suite of materials from the Human Genome Management Plan workshop, the final report from the Human Genome Workshop held in Santa Fe, 1986, provides a good technological and conceptual baseline for the project.

  Request Series

Information on a variety of molecular biological and data analysis conferences and workshops in which Goad participated. The most voluminous files are those from the CODATA conferences and Numerical Data Advisory Board of the NRC, but there is information on the NIGMS Nucleic Acid Sequence Data Bank Workshop (1980); the Aspen Center conference of the Acquisition, Integration, and Analysis of Molecular Genetic Information (1982); the NSF Advisory Committee on Advanced Computing (1983-1984); the Hayashibara Forum (Okayama, Japan, 1987); the Complex Carbohydrate Structure Data Base Workshop (1986); the workshop "Exploring the Role of Robotics and Automation in Decoding the Human Genome" (1987); and the Workshop on Algorithms for Molecular Genetics (1988). The series includes two interesting typescripts: "Data Management for Physical Mapping" and "Notes on the Lehrach Probe Hybridization Map" by G. P. Smith, both from 1987.

  Request Series

Miscellaneous materials of a biographical, autobiographical, or personal nature, including Goad's diplomas, certificates of fellowship in scientific societies, his military service records, and articles about Goad and his research that appeared in the New York Times Magazine, Science, Omni, the Los Alamos Newsbulletin, and local newspapers. The series contains two two-page autobiographical pieces written by Goad, and a longer, though incomplete memoir, written ca.2000.

  Request Series

Miscellaneous manuscript materials and candid and studio photographs of Goad, his family, and colleagues. The manuscripts contain an interesting series of drafts from the Executive Committee of the Los Alamos Branch of the Federation of American Scientists (FAS), March 1955, objecting to the tone of a statement issued by the national FAS of hydrogen bomb testing, and a typescript "Comments on FAS Release of H-Bomb Test Dangers." Also included are a bound laboratory notebook and miscellaneous notes from Goad's research in bioinformatics,



Detailed Inventory
Series I. Correspondence and notes
1942-2000 Request Series

Miscellaneous correspondence, reports, and legal documents of both a professional and personal nature. The most extensive body of correspondence consists of numerous email exchanges with Sidney Altman, a close friend and 1989 Nobel laureate in chemistry, and there are less extensive exchanges with Nobel laureates Baruch Blumberg and Max Perutz. While the correspondence with Altman is largely personal, both correspondents touch on a wide range of topics, from Ernst Mayr's alleged antipathy to molecular biology to hierarchical theories of evolution to current politics.

Goad's annual progress reports to Los Alamos provide interesting insight into the evolution of his views on molecular biology between the late 1960s and mid-1970s when his commitment to the field was consolidated and when he moved into Los Alamos group T-10, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics. Equally important is a series of files relating to what might have been the highest profile event of his career: his efforts on behalf of his Los Alamos colleague, Wen Ho Lee, who had been accused of supplying secret information about nuclear weapons research to the People's Republic of China. Goad took a prominent role in marshalling support among scientists and in the media, and supplied an affidavit (his "declaration") on behalf of Lee at trial.

Altman, Sidney, 1939-
1997-2000 2 folders Box 1
Request Item

Correspondence, primarily e-mail, with Nobel laureate Sidney Altman

Folder 1
1997 Folder 1
Request Item
Folder 2
1998-2000 Folder 2
Request Item
Bell, G. I. and Walter Goad
1980 December 4 2p. Box 1
Request Item

Memo to R. Ewald. Prospective National DNA Sequence Library and Analysis Center needs External Computer Network Access to CCF

Bingham, Jeff
1987 2 items Box 1
Request Item
Blumberg, Baruch S., 1925-
1988, 1992 2 items Box 1
Request Item
Brownell, Robert
1970, 1983 2 items Box 1
Request Item
Carruthers, Peter
1974, 1981 2 items Box 1
Request Item
Davis, Joel
1988 3p. Box 1
Request Item
Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000
1942-2000 10 folders Box 1
Request Item
Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Correspondence regarding first job
1942 4 items Box 1
Request Item
Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Los Alamos reports
1969 1 item Box 1
Request Item

List of Goad's publications in theoretical biology

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Los Alamos reports
1972 8 items Box 1
Request Item

Includes TMs "Numerical Analysis of Gel Permeation Chromatograms" (2 copies); "Macromolecular Diffusion" (2 copies); letter to LASL; and "Progress Abstract;" and note to contributors to Enzyme-Structure part D

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Los Alamos reports
1973 5 items Box 1
Request Item

Includes Progress Abstract; TMs "Analysis of Experiments in Radiation Chemistry of DNA"; review of Foundations of Mathematical Biology.

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Los Alamos reports
1974 6 items Box 1
Request Item

Includes Progress Abstract ("Radiation Chemistry of Nucleic Acids"); two office memos; list Publications on Theoretical Biology and Biophysics; and vita of Walter Goad; "Two Research Problems" ("Epidemiology" and "Fundamental Studies of Diffusion")

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Los Alamos reports
1975 4 items Box 1
Request Item

Includes Progress Abstract; list of Publications on Theoretical Biology and Biophysics (2 copies); review of book "Introduction to Mathematical Biology"

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Los Alamos reports
1976 Box 1
Request Item

Includes three copies of T-10 Publciations FY-76.

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Los Alamos reports
1977 2 items Box 1
Request Item

Includes report on activities of T-10 (Theoretical Biology and Biophysics) and vita of Walter

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Los Alamos reports and miscellany
1978-2000 Box 1
Request Item

Includes "publications FY78"; report for T-10, 1983; computer printout (ca.1983?) on sequence alignment algorithm; photocopy of Los Alamos Administrative Manual, 1987; program for Goad's funeral service, 2000

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Reprint requests
1987, 1989 2 items Box 1
Request Item
Kanehisa, Minoru, Roberts, Richard J., 1943-
1991, 2000 Box 1
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King Faisal International Prize
1987 2p. Box 1
Request Item
Lee, Wen Ho
2000 5 folders Box 1
Request Item

Includes copy of indictment against Lee.

Lee, Wen Ho.
Appreciation of Walter Goad's contribution to the case of Wen Ho Lee
2000 15p. Folder 1
Request Item
Lee, Wen Ho.
Correspondence 1
2000 85p. Folder 2
Request Item
Lee, Wen Ho.
Correspondence 2
2000 Folder 3
Request Item
Lee, Wen Ho.
Correspondence 3
2000 56p. Folder 4
Request Item
Lee, Wen Ho.
Declaration of Walter Goad
2000 11p. Folder 5
Request Item
Perelson, Alan S.
2000 August 2 items Box 1
Request Item
Perutz, Max, 1914-
1993 2 items Box 1
Request Item
Rabson, Alan S.
1986 September 19 14p. Box 1
Request Item

Site report for Laboratory of Mathematical Biology

Studer, Frank
1982-1995 5 items Box 1
Request Item
United States. Department of Energy
1993 October 4p. Box 1
Request Item
United States. Selective Service System
1956 4 items Box 1
Request Item
University of Colorado
1964-1977 23 items Box 1
Request Item
Wada, Akiyoshi
1982 October 2p. Box 1
Request Item

Re: cooperation between GenBank and similar databank in Japan

Watanabe, Utaru
1982 September 13 1p. Box 1
Request Item

Re: cooperation between GenBank and similar databank in Japan

Series II. Works by Goad
  Request Series

Selected works, published and semi-published, by Goad from throughout his career. These include a copy of his dissertation, A Theoretical Study of Extensive Cosmic Ray Air Showers (Duke University, 1954), articles (not separately inventoried), book reviews, and reviews of grant and research proposals by peers.

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
A Theoretical Study of Extensive Cosmic Ray Air Showers
1953 117p. Box 2
Request Item

Dissertation, Duke University

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Publications 1
1952-1965 10 items Box 2
Request Item
Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Publications 2
1968-1977 16 items Box 2
Request Item
Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Publications 3
1978-1981 4 items Box 2
Request Item

Includes unsolicited "Proposal to Establish a National Center for Collection, and Computer Storage and Analysis of Nucleic Acid Sequences" submitted by T-10

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Publications 4
1982-1983 5 items Box 2
Request Item
Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Publications 5
1984-1989 9 items Box 2
Request Item

Includes copy of Goad's article "Sequence Analysis: Contributions by Ulam to Molecular Genetics," 1989.

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Book reviews
1965-1982 5 items Box 2
Request Item
Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Peer reviews
1981-1988 ca.100p. Box 2
Request Item
Series III. GenBank
  Request Series

Materials relating to the founding and first ten years of operation of GenBank, including general correspondence, correspondence with Bolt, Baranek and Newman (contractors for the database and networking operations), contracts with government agencies, and grant proposals.

As a member of the GenBank Advisory Group, Goad took part in meetings concerning the structuring of the database, its relationships with similar enterprises in the United States, Europe and Japan, and in reporting on its development. Along with selected minutes of the Advisory Group, the series includes memos and other documents submitted to Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to document GenBank-related activities, information on "competitors" and peers (e.g. Genet, MolGen, PROPHET, and Japanese nucleic acid data banks), studies of computing needs and facilities for GenBank, and users' manuals for submitting data to GenBank and using the database. Materials filed under EMBL consist primarily of correspondence and documents relating to meetings with EMBL and documents presented to Los Alamos to support requests for reimbursement.

The "Los Alamos Internal documents" include Goad's status reports to the Lab and his prospectuses for research and funding submitted to supervisors. These provide an important perspective on the internal support at Los Alamos for the development of GenBank and Among the more interesting manuscripts in the series are "Computer Storage and Analysis of DNA Sequences," 1982 (a status report to the Institutional Supporting Research and Development); "DNA as Molecular Processor," ca.1984 (proposal); "Identification of Functional Similarities in Nucleic Acid Sequences," 1984 (draft proposal), and a draft of Jim Fickett's "five year plan" for the redesign of GenBank, 1987. A printout of a program in FORTRAN for detecting homologous sequences, 1984, is a relic of an earlier era of programming.

GenBank.
Correspondence 1
1979-1980 Box 3
Request Item
GenBank.
Correspondence 2
1981-1982 Box 3
Request Item
GenBank.
Correspondence 3
1983 Box 3
Request Item
GenBank.
Correspondence 4
1984 Box 3
Request Item
GenBank.
Correspondence 5
1985-1986 Box 3
Request Item
GenBank.
Correspondence 6
1987 Box 3
Request Item
GenBank.
Correspondence with Bolt, Beranek, and Newman 1
1981-1982 Box 3
Request Item

Includes business proposal and amendments; BBN proposal to NIH

GenBank.
Correspondence with Bolt, Beranek, and Newman 2
1982 Box 3
Request Item

Reponses to questions from NIH regarding proposal of 1982

GenBank.
Correspondence with Bolt, Beranek, and Newman 3
1983 Box 3
Request Item

Proposal to NIH to support data management, data collection and distribution for GenBank

GenBank.
Correspondence with Bolt, Beranek, and Newman 4
1984-1987 Box 3
Request Item

Includes grant proposal to Dept. of Agriculture for maintenance of plant genetic sequences

GenBank.
Contracts 1
1981-1982 Box 3
Request Item

Contracts with NIH, Intelligenetics

GenBank.
Contracts 2
1980-1987 Box 3
Request Item

Supporting information for contracts, including correspondence and agreements, resumes for investigators; verification of trademark on "GenBank"

GenBank.
Proposals
1981-1987 3 items Box 3
Request Item

Proposed addendum to R01-GM2706, 1981; "Center for Computer Analysis of Macromolecules,"

GenBank. Advisory Group.
Correspondence
1982-1983 Box 4
Request Item

Notes and correspondence regarding Advisory Group.

GenBank. Advisory Group.
Minutes and notes 1
1984 Box 4
Request Item
GenBank. Advisory Group.
Minutes and notes 2
1985 Box 4
Request Item
GenBank. Advisory Group.
Minutes and notes 3
1986 Box 4
Request Item
GenBank. Advisory Group.
Minutes and notes 4
1987 Box 4
Request Item
GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Competitors
1980-1989 7 folders Box 4
Request Item

Materials relating to other nucleic acid databases, either "competitors" or colleagues of GenBank

Genet
1982 Folder 1
Request Item
Japanese databases
1982-1986 Folder 2
Request Item
Molecular Biology Computer Research Resource
1986 Folder 3
Request Item

Includes application for grant from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute to USPHS for Molecular Biology Computer Research Resource

MolGen
1980-1981 Folder 4
Request Item

Includes "An Introduction for guests pf MOLGEN on SUMEX-AIM," 1980 and 1981; minutes of workshop on need for a nucleic acid sequence database, 1980; and proposal to NSF for funding MOLGEN, 1983

National Biomedical Research Foundation
1980-1982 Folder 5
Request Item

Re: Margaret Dayhoff's system

PROPHET
1982 Folder 6
Request Item
Protein Databank
1987-1989 Folder 7
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Protein Databank Newsletters no. 40-47

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Computing materials
1979-1987 3 folders Box 5
Request Item
Applications of Supercomputers in Life Sciences
1984-1986 Folder 1
Request Item

Materials on Workshop on the Applications of Supercomputers in Life Sciences (1984), including the proceedings, and NSF Office of Advanced Scientific Computing

ESNet
1986-1987 Folder 2
Request Item

Materials relating to the Energy Sciences Network, including Five Year Networking Plan (1987), minutes, notes and correspondence for Steering Committee; planning and status documents relating to the internet and HEPNET (High Energy Physics Comp. Net.)

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory--T-10 Computer use
1979-1983 Folder 3
Request Item

Re: computer use in Division T-10 at Los Alamos

GenBank: The First 15 Years.
  Request Item

Abstract: Contains material relating to the Symposium Honoring Dr. Walter Goad.

"Hello Walter."
n. d. 1.0 Item(s) Request Item

Abstract: Two photographs, a crowd in each holding letters that spell "Hello" and "Walter" respectively.

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/graphics:4557

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Database design notes
1983-1984 Box 5
Request Item
GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Homology program (FORTRAN)
1984 Box 5
Request Item
GenBank--Miscellaneous.
EMBL materials 1
1979-1982 Box 5
Request Item

Correspondence, agendas, etc. re: workshops and meetings, including "Computing and DNA Sequences" workshop, 1980; proposal for Intl. Workshop on Nucleotide Sequence Databases, 1982; recommendations on Nucleotide Sequence Data Library, 1982; travel reports

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
EMBL materials 2
1983-1987 Box 5
Request Item

Includes computer printout of letter from Hamm and Goad regarding LASL/GenBank/EMBL cooperation; notes on EMBL workshop on "Future of the Biocomputing Programme," 1985, including final report

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Los Alamos internal documents
1981-1989 3 folders Box 5
Request Item
Los Alamos internal documents 1
1981-1985 Folder 1
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Los Alamos internal documents 2
1986-1987 Folder 2
Request Item
Los Alamos internal documents 3
1988 Folder 3
Request Item

Includes research report by Daniel B. Davidson, 1988; proposals and summaries of activity

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Manuals
1982-1984 Box 6
Request Item

Manuals or guides for access and participation in Los Alamos Nucleic Acid Sequence Data Bank, including "Los Alamos Nucleic Acid Sequence Data Bank and Computer Analysis Center"

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Reference materials
1976-1981 Box 6
Request Item

Miscellaneous materials relating to database query and design

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
"Science article"
1986 Box 6
Request Item

Drafts of Bilofsky et al., "Data banks of nucleic acid sequence: GenBank" and Burks et al. "GenBank: The Genetic Sequence Data Bank" (the latter published in Science)

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Submissions forms for data
ca.1985? Box 6
Request Item
GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Viewgraphs
1986-1988 Box 6
Request Item

Overhead transparencies for presentations on GenBank

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Miscellaneous materials 1
1979-1982 Box 6
Request Item

Includes data on E. coli, M1 RNA homology search

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Miscellaneous materials 2
1983-1984 Box 6
Request Item

Includes copy of TMs "Nucleotide Sequence Data Banks"

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Miscellaneous materials 3
1985-1986 Box 6
Request Item

Includes flow charts for data and resource management, misc. materials relating to grants; TMs "Redesigning GenBank: An Overview" by Jim Fickett (a "five-year plan")

GenBank--Miscellaneous.
Miscellaneous materials 4
1987-1991 Box 6
Request Item

Includes 1987 status report on GenBank, notes on PCR (ca.1990) and DNA denaturation

Series IV. Human Genome Project
  Request Series

Materials relating primarily to the planning stages for the Human Genome Project, many emanating from Goad's participation in the Advisory Panel. Goad attended several early planing workshops in which the sequencing and analytical technologies were fleshed out, with the intention of tapping newer technologies to scale up the mapping and sequencing enterprise, including polymerase chain reaction and the intensive use of computers and robotic approaches. In addition to a small suite of materials from the Human Genome Management Plan workshop, the final report from the Human Genome Workshop held in Santa Fe, 1986, provides a good technological and conceptual baseline for the project.

Human Genome Project 1
1986 Box 7
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Some correspondence, planning documents, and miscellany relating to Human Genome Project; respecting planning and methodology for the project

Human Genome Project 2
1987 Box 7
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Includes statement of operations of Human Genome Project, 1987; published "Report on the Human Genome Initiative," April 1987; and Articles of Incorporation of the Human Genome

Human Genome Project--Grant proposals
1986 Box 7
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Includes applications and related material to DOE for "Computational Analysis..," "Technical and Eonomic Analysis of Biomass Technologies," "Human Genome: Chromosome-specific Physical Mapping," "Enhancing Genomic DNA Analysis with Robotic Automation"

Human Genome Project--Publications 1
1986 Box 7
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Includes semi-published(?) position paper on major issues facing the Project by harles Cantor; "DOE Human Genomic Technical Tool Development Program Recommendations" by Temple Smith; "Human Genome Initiative Proposal for Discussion by the HERAC DOE Subcommittee"

Human Genome Project--Publications 2
1988 Box 7
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Publications, drafts, and notes on Sirotkin and Loehr, "The Interface Between Computational Science and Nucleic Acid Sequencing"; Moyzis et al., "The Distribution of Interspeed Repetitive DNA Sequences..."; and Sirotkin et al. "Computer Simulation..."

Human Genome Project--Publications 3
1988 Box 7
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Drafts and assorted materials relating to Goad et al., "Multiplex Walking: A Proposal"

Human Genome Project--OTA 1
1986-1987 Box 7
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Materials relating to Mapping the Human Genome Advisory Panel Meeting, 1987, including proposal for an OTA assessment and an OTA preliminary memo on "Status of Mapping and Sequencing" of project

Human Genome Project--OTA 2
1987 Box 7
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Drafts of chapters 2-7 of OTA report

Human Genome Project--Site visits
1986-1993 Box 8
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Material re: site visits to Laboratory of Mathematical Biology, National Cancer Institute

Human Genome Project--Workshops (Santa Fe, 1986) 1
1985 Box 8
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Final report packet from Human Genome Workshop (Santa Cruz, Calif., 1985), including list of participants; "Program for Large-Scale Analysis of Nucleotide Sequences" (Anderson and Anderson); agenda; "Technology" (Comings); "Memo" (Gilbert); "Cost of Sequencing" (Burks); memo for Howard Hughes Medical Inst.

Human Genome Project--Workshops (Santa Fe, 1986) 2
1986 Box 8
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Comments from participants in Human Genome Workshop (Santa Fe, N.M., 1986), included with final report. Also: "Models of the enterprise" and draft and email from Goad to Mark Bitensky of his thoughts on the Human Genome Project; including David C. Ward, "Summary Statement of DNA Sequencing Technology." Also: "non-technical document" relating to sequencing the

Human Genome Project--Workshops (Santa Cruz, 1985)
1985 Box 8
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"Notes and conclusions from the Human Genome Workshop"

Human Genome Project--Workshops (Denver, 1987)
1987 Box 8
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Documents from Human Genome Management Plan workshop, including description of Howard Hughes Med. Inst. participation, American Type Culture Collection (re: repository of DNA probes); Jett et al. "A Method for Rapid Base Sequencing in DNA"; DOE grant applications for Human Recombinant DNA Library and "Human Genome Sequencing: Robotic Vision"; Chuck Watson on data management; "Advanced Concepts for Base Sequencing in DNA"

Series V. Conferences and workshops
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Information on a variety of molecular biological and data analysis conferences and workshops in which Goad participated. The most voluminous files are those from the CODATA conferences and Numerical Data Advisory Board of the NRC, but there is information on the NIGMS Nucleic Acid Sequence Data Bank Workshop (1980); the Aspen Center conference of the Acquisition, Integration, and Analysis of Molecular Genetic Information (1982); the NSF Advisory Committee on Advanced Computing (1983-1984); the Hayashibara Forum (Okayama, Japan, 1987); the Complex Carbohydrate Structure Data Base Workshop (1986); the workshop "Exploring the Role of Robotics and Automation in Decoding the Human Genome" (1987); and the Workshop on Algorithms for Molecular Genetics (1988). The series includes two interesting typescripts: "Data Management for Physical Mapping" and "Notes on the Lehrach Probe Hybridization Map" by G. P. Smith, both from 1987.

Acquisition, Integration, and Analysis of Molecular Genetic Information... (Aspen Center for Physics, 1982)
1982 Box 9
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Information from Workshop on Computational Analysis of DNA Sequences held at Aspen Center for Physics, August-Sept., 1982, including "Terminal Progress Report"

Baca Conference
1981 Box 9
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Schedule for conference

Committee on Biotechnology Nomenclature and Information Organization
1986 Box 9
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Hayashibara Forum
1987 Box 9
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Workshop in Okayama, Japan,organized by Akiyoshi Wada, including abstracts of papers presented, offprints, list of participants.

CODATA 1
1984 Box 9
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Material relating to CODATA and Numerical Data Advisory Board, including report of the Education Panel of the Numerical Data Advisory Board.

CODATA 2
1985-1986 Box 9
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Material relating to CODATA and Numerical Data Advisory Board.

CODATA 3
1987 Box 9
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Documents and correspondence relating to 1st CODATA Workshop (Gaithersburg, 1987), including minutes of steering committee (Goad was a member).

CODATA 4
1984-1985 4 items Box 9
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Mintues of Meetings of the Numerical Data Advisory Board, U.S. National Committee for CODATA (July 23, 1984, Jan. 29, 1985; July 11, 1985).

Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass.)
1988 Box 9
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Materials for participants in Molecular Evolution course at MBL, including list of participant, schedule, list of participants, and overhead transparencies. Photo of participants transferred to Series VI: Photographs.

National Library of Medicine
1988 Box 9
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Materials for Workshop on Algorithms for Molecular Genetics

National Institute of General Medical Sciences
1980 Box 9
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Nucleic Acid Sequence Data Bank Workshop (1980 : Bethesda, Md.), including agenda, notes, and Goad's "Summary and observations"

National Institute of Health
1987 3 items Box 9
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Minutes of Working Group (Los Alamos) for July 14 and August 11, 1987.

National Science Foundation
1983-1984 Box 9
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Materials relating to Advisory Committee on Advanced Computing, including draft proposal for USERNET participation.

United States. Department of Energy 1
1986 Box 9
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Materials relating to the Complex Carbohydrate Structure Data Base Workshop (1987 : Auburn, N.Y.), including list of participants, summary.

United States. Department of Energy 2
1987 Box 9
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Materials relating to workshop: Exploring the Role of Robotics and Automation in Decoding the Human Genome, including agenda, list of participants, report

United States. Department of Energy 3
1987 Box 9
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Materials relating to workshop on physical mapping of genome, including draft TMs on "Data Management for Physical Mapping" and "Notes on the Lehrach Probe Hybridization Map" by G. P. Smith.

Miscellaneous
1984-1987 Box 9
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Miscellaneous materials relating to various conferences and symposia, including the Symposium on the Analysis of Genetic Squences and the Symposium on Biological Applications on Cray

Series VI. Biographical and personal
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Miscellaneous materials of a biographical, autobiographical, or personal nature, including Goad's diplomas, certificates of fellowship in scientific societies, his military service records, and articles about Goad and his research that appeared in the New York Times Magazine, Science, Omni, the Los Alamos Newsbulletin, and local newspapers. The series contains two two-page autobiographical pieces written by Goad, and a longer, though incomplete memoir, written ca.2000.

Articles about Goad--Los Alamos Bulletin
1982-1987 8 items Box 11
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Articles mentioning Goad extracted from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Newsbulletin

Articles about Goad--Miscellaneous
1980-2001 12 items Box 11
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Articles mentioning Goad from various publications, including Science, Omni, NY Times

Curriculum vita
1985-1988 4 items Box 11
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Three versions of Goad's c.v.

Family materials
1952-2000 Box 11
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Miscellaneous family-related material, including chronology of his life by his wife, Maxine Goad; Goad genealogy; annual family newsletters (1989-2000), selected correspondence with wife and children; wedding announcement, and article on Maxine Goad's career.

Grainger High School Yearbook
1942 Box 11
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Yearbook, with signatures, from Goad's senior year in high school, Kinston, N.C.

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Memoir (incomplete)
1994-2000 3 items Box 11
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Three autobiographical memoirs of Goad, all brief, the last incomplete.

Memorial gathering
2000 8 items Box 11
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Program for memorial gathering and statements by friends and colleagues read there.

Military service record
1942-1954 Box 11
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Official records of Goad's service in the Navy and Naval Reserve.

Obituaries
2000 8 items Box 11
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Organizations and Societies
1945-1975 5 items Box 11
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Membership certificates or notice of election to Fellowship in American Association for the Advancement of Science (1968) and American Physical Society (1975); Eleanor Roosevelt Inst. For Cancer Research (1974); and Sigma Xi (1945); appointment as Laboratory Fellow, Los Alamos (1987).

Union College Commencement Exercises (Program)
1945 1 item Box 11
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Diplomas
1942-1954 3 items Box 11
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High School Diploma (Grainger High School, Kinston, N.C., 1942), BS, Union College (1945), Ph.D., Duke (1954)

Los Alamos National Laboratory Certificate of Excellence
1988 1 item Box 11
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GenBank: The First 15 Years. A Symposium Honoring Dr. Walter Goad
1991 Scrapbook Box 11
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Series VII. Miscellaneous and photographs
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Miscellaneous manuscript materials and candid and studio photographs of Goad, his family, and colleagues. The manuscripts contain an interesting series of drafts from the Executive Committee of the Los Alamos Branch of the Federation of American Scientists (FAS), March 1955, objecting to the tone of a statement issued by the national FAS of hydrogen bomb testing, and a typescript "Comments on FAS Release of H-Bomb Test Dangers." Also included are a bound laboratory notebook and miscellaneous notes from Goad's research in bioinformatics,

H-bomb memoranda
1955 Box 12
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Responses to Federation of American Scientists statement on the H-bomb from the Los Alamos Chapter of the FAS, including draft to the Executive Committee of the Los Alamos Chapter objecting to the tone of the statement; a memorandum to the Executive Committee of the Los Alamos Chapter; a draft of a statement from the Los Alamos Chapter, and "Comments on FAS Release of H-Bomb Test Dangers;" misc. drafts

Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Laboratory notebook
1972-1979 1 vol. Box 12
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Goad, Walter B., 1925-2000.
Laboratory notes
n.d. Box 12
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Walter B. Goad at Los Alamos
1982-1987 7 photoprints Box 12
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Formal and informal portraits of Goad, including: 1) With model of DNA (for awarding contract toGenBank), 1985 2) Goad and Jim Fickett, 1982 3) Goad and unidentified female colleague, 1982 4) Goad, Christian Burks, et al. and Los Alamos, 1984 5) Goad at blackboard, Los Alamos, 1984 6) Goad at computer, 1984 7) Goad in his office at Los Alamos, 1987

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/graphics:4556

Walter B. Goad portraits
1945-2000 17 photoprints Box 12
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Miscellaneous photos of Goad:, including: 1) Goad as naval officer, 1945 2) Goad and Maxine Steineke Goad upon engagement, August 1952 3) Goad and Maxine Goad in the garden of their home in El Rancho, N.M., April 1998 (color) 4, 5) Goad at home in El Rancho, N.M., fall 1979 (two photos, color); 6) Studio portrait, ca.1980 7) Goad and three colleagues at Eleanor Roosevelt Inst. Genetic Symposium, fall 1986 8) Goad, Ted Puck, Leonard Lerman, and Arthur Robinson at Eleanor Roosevelt Inst. Genetic Symposium, fall 1986 9, 10) Goad and Goad and Maxine Goad on rafting trip on Rio Grande, Tex., March 1987 (2 photos, color) 11) Goad on Folkboat, B.C. 1990 (color) 12) Goad on Folkboat, Desolation Sound, B.C. May 1992 (color) 13) Goad at anchor, Aristazabal Island, B.C., August 1996 (color) 14-17) Goad on trip to Chilean Andes, March 2000 (4 photos, color)

Walter B. Goad family
1972-1998 13 photoprints Box 12
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Candid photos of Goad, his wife, children, and grandchildren, most in color

Los Alamos, 25 Years Service Awards
1976 1 photoprint Box 12
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Group portrait of recipient of 25 Years Service Awards, Los Alamos, January 22, 1976

Molecular Evolution Course, Woods Hole
1988 1 photoprint Box 12
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Group portrait of participants in Molecular Evolution Course held at Woods Hole, 1988

Goad's Travels: The Gulf of California Under Sail
1968 1 vol. (27p. and 9 photoprints) Box 12
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Diary of family sailing outing to Gulf of California, 1968

Goad's Travels: British Columbia Under Sail
1993, 1995 2 vols. (4 photoprints) Box 12
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Maxine Goad's diaries of sailing vacations in British Columbia

Photos for publication
ca.1982-1985 34 photoprints Box 12
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Miscellaneous photos of figures from published works

Miscellaneous overhead transparencies
ca.1982-1985 Box 12
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Miscellaneous transparencies and other materials used in presentations regarding GenBank and nucleic acid databases and analysis

Posters
1991, 1994 2 items Box OS
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Poster for Symposium Honoring Walter Goad (NIGMS, 1991), and for Theoretical and Computational Biology Workshop (1994)