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Abstract

Best known as author of the "Smyth Report," the official government report on the development of the atomic bomb, Henry DeWolf Smyth had a long and varied career as a physicist, diplomat, instructor, policy maker, and administrator. Taking leave from his position with the Physics Department at Princeton, Smyth began work on the Uranium committee of the National Defense Research Committee in 1940, serving as a consultant on the Manhattan Project from 1943-1945. Although he returned to Princeton after the war, Smyth left academia to become Commissioner of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1949 to 1954, and he subsequently served as U.S. Representative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), from 1961 to 1970.

The Smyth Papers (1885-1987) contain correspondence, subject files, speeches, manuscripts of unpublished and published works, reprints and printed publications, scientific class notes and papers, newspaper clippings, photographs, and memorabilia which document Smyth's career as a physicist and statesman. The bulk of the collection dates from approximately 1944 to 1970, the most active and influential years of his career, providing good documentation of his work on the Manhattan Project and the Smyth Report, and his involvement with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the International Atomic Energy Commission.

Background note

Henry DeWolf Smyth (1898-1986) was a physicist and diplomat who figured prominently in the development of atomic energy in the United States through his contributions as scientist, instructor, policy maker, administrator, and author. He is perhaps best known for writing the official government report on the development of the atomic bomb in the U.S., Atomic Energy for Military Purposes (1945). Smyth's other important contributions to the field of atomic science were made while a commissioner on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), from 1949 to 1954, and subsequently as the U.S. Representative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), from 1961 to 1970. These include his dissenting opinion in the AEC's security clearance case for J. Robert Oppenheimer, and his influential work with the IAEA on nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, and the peaceful use of atomic energy.

Henry DeWolf Smyth was born in Clinton, New York on 1 May 1898 to Charles Henry Smyth, Jr. and Ruth Anne Phelps. In 1905 the family moved to Princeton when Henry's father was appointed professor of geology. Henry attended Miss Fine's School, and the Lawrenceville School from which he was graduated in 1914. He went on to Princeton University graduating in 1918, and then pursued an independent research project with Karl Taylor Compton until 1919. His first paper, "Tyndall beam and size of particles," was published in July, 1919. Smyth worked in the chemical warfare laboratory in Washington, D.C. and at the Aberdeen Proving Ground until the end of World War I. He received his master's degree and Ph.D., both in physics, in quick succession at Princeton, 1920 and 1921 respectively. The faculty at Princeton made a special resolution to allow him to take his two examinations for the Ph.D. in one term.

As a National Research Council Fellow, he studied at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, England, from 1921 to 1923, and at Princeton from 1923 to 1924. After his studies under Ernest Rutherford at the Cavendish, and a second doctorate, Smyth returned to Princeton where, in 1924, he became an instructor. He was named assistant professor in 1925, associate professor in 1929, professor in 1936. In 1935, he was named chairman of the physics department. Smyth married Mary de Coningh on 30 June 1936.

Smyth's primary research interests between 1919 and 1935 were the study of ionization of gases by electron impact and critical potentials, positive ray analysis, molecular structure, matter, motion and electricity, and atomic energy. He spent 1931-32 as a Guggenheim Fellow at the University of GC6ttingen. After 1934, his interests changed to nuclear physics with James Chadwick's discovery of the neutron, and the accelerator developments made by John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, and by Ernest O. Lawrence. 1 The majority of his research papers were published between 1919 and 1945.

Following his appointment as chairman of the department in 1935, Smyth's administrative duties took precedence over his research. His colleague Val Fitch said of him, "he was unflappable and simply bristled with integrity. I have seen him on a number of occasions, by his presence alone, bring dignity to meetings which had all the ingredients of impending chaos." 2 Among Smyth's accomplishments at Princeton while he was chair of the physics department were the two cyclotrons which were both built by Milton G. White and his associates, the first in 1935, and the second in 1946.

In addition, Smyth devoted much effort to reorganizing the large introductory physics courses. He understood the importance of integrating teaching and research and, to this end, introduced the extensive use of lecture demonstrations. In 1939, his book Matter, Motion and Electricity was published. Co-written with Charles W. Ufford, it was "perhaps the first beginning text that attempted to cover the most recent physics in addition to the classical material." 3

Smyth's early career was primarily concerned with research on atomic structure. In 1940, before the Manhattan District was brought into being, he began his war work as a consultant on research programs for the National Research Council and the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). He continued this work until 1945.

Smyth was a member of the Uranium Committee which was a subcommittee of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC). The NDRC, chaired by Vannevar Bush, was established 15 July 1940 to direct, coordinate and carry out a national program of military research and development. Its membership was drawn from the National Academy of Sciences. In June 1941, President Roosevelt established the OSRD with the NDRC as one of its subordinate agencies. Bush was made director of the OSRD and James B. Conant became chairman of the NDRC. The OSRD's aim was to mobilize American scientists for war. The Committee on Uranium, somewhat enlarged, remained under the NDRC but was renamed the Section on Uranium. 4

In order to maximize the effort to develop the atomic bomb, the atomic energy program was divorced from the NDRC in December 1941, and placed under the immediate supervision of Bush and the OSRD. This scientific group, now called the OSRD S-1 Section (the word "uranium" was dropped for security reasons), was to recommend and coordinate action on nuclear research and ensure that authorized assignments were carried out and, within 6 months, prepare a final report on the feasibility of building atomic bombs. In June 1942, the Army Corps of Engineers was directed to construct an atomic bomb with the OSRD retaining responsibility for scientific research and pilot plant experimentation for producing fissionable materials to be used in the manufacture of atomic bombs. 5

A member of the Uranium Committee under the National Defense Research Council, Smyth worked in the Uranium Section, the Power Production Subsection and the Theoretical Subsection which included Fermi, Szilard and J.A. Wheeler. "At that time he directed work at Princeton on resonance absorption of neutrons by U-238. In the fall of 1941 it was Smyth who suggested the use of large-scale electromagnetic methods to separate uranium isotopes, and by 1943 the first large amounts of U-235 had been separated by this method. As administrator, following the reorganization of the Uranium Committee of the NDRC under the Office of Scientific Research and Development in 1941, Smyth was appointed by the OSRD Uranium Committee Executive Group, which was to report on the program and budget for an eighteen-month period, `to prepare recommendations as to how many programs should be continued, and to prepare recommendations as to what parts of the program should be eliminated.'" 6

Between 1943 and 1945, he served as consultant to the Manhattan Engineer District, which produced the atomic bomb. From 1943-44 he was Assistant Director of, later consultant to, the Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago. There Arthur Compton's group worked on the production of the heavy water necessary to regulate the speed of neutrons in the chain reaction. Smyth, it should be remembered, continued to run Princeton's under-staffed physics department during the war.

In 1944, Lt. General Leslie Groves appointed Smyth to the Richard C. Tolman Committee to make recommendations for the post-war development of atomic energy. In spring of that year, Smyth suggested the need for an official report on the scientific and administrative operations of the atomic bomb project. In April, Groves asked Smyth to proceed with the report. He was permitted free access to all pertinent information, which meant that he was exempted from all normal compartmental rules, and visited each of the various departments of the Manhattan Engineering District, where he conferred with key people and collected data. He wrote the report in fifteen months under conditions of utmost secrecy. The official government report on the project was released on August 12th, 1945.

Made public after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, popularly known as the Smyth Report, was the first source of information on the atomic age for many Americans. The report was subsequently published in September 1945 by Princeton University Press, and sold more than 160,000 copies. Smyth had relinquished the copyright and received none of the royalties. The document itself was placed in the public domain, in accordance with Smyth's belief that "the ultimate responsibility for our nation's policy rests on its citizens and they can discharge such responsibilities wisely only if they are informed." 7

Between 1945 and 1949, Smyth, as Chairman, worked on strengthening the physics department. He was named the Joseph Henry Professor of Physics in 1946. In addition, from 1946 to 1949, he was a trustee to the Associated Universities Inc. which operated Brookhaven National Laboratory and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. After 1945, his speeches and articles addressed the relation of science to government and to society, and three aspects of atomic energy: its historical development, its potential uses in peacetime, and the need for international control of future atomic energy development, since other nations had the capability to make atomic bombs.

In May 1949, he became a member of the Atomic Energy Commission, and gave up the chairmanship of the Princeton Physics Department the following year. Smyth was the only member of the AEC with a scientific background. President Truman appointed Smyth to a five-year term on the AEC in 1951. Smyth's duties while on the commission were to promote U.S. research in nuclear energy, and to plan U.S. development of peacetime nuclear power.

While on the AEC there were two notable events in which Smyth played an important role: the hydrogen bomb decision and the Oppenheimer case. Prior to 1949, although aware of the possibility of a fusion bomb (the H-bomb, or `Super'), the AEC had determined not to proceed with a full-scale development program. There was, however, a small research group working on the project. "The Soviet atomic bomb detonation in August 1949 brought pressure on the commission to commence such a program to ensure the U.S.'s military advantage. The AEC requested the opinion of the General Advisory Committee (consisting of 9 scientists and engineers with Oppenheimer as chairman), which in October 1949 unanimously opposed a crash program.

"On 1 November 1949 Senator Edwin Johnson stirred up the debate with his public announcement of the possibility of an H-bomb program." The AEC decided to let President Truman make the decision and submitted to the President the GAC recommendation and an opinion of each of the five AEC commissioners. "Chairman David E. Lilienthal, and Commissioners Sumner T. Pike and Smyth opposed a crash program; Commissioners Lewis L. Strauss and Gordon E. Dean favored it. Smyth saw this as an opportunity to open discussions on international control of atomic weapons, but on 31 January 1950, influenced by the reports of the departments of Defense and of State, Truman announced his decision to go ahead with the fusion bomb program." 8

J. Robert Oppenheimer, the chairman of the General Advisory Committee to the AEC, had headed the team that assembled and exploded the first atomic bomb at Los Alamos. During the height of the McCarthy era, Lewis Strauss, the Chairman of the AEC, expressed doubts about Oppenheimer's loyalty to the country and urged President Eisenhower to restrict his access to secret information. After Eisenhower had this "blank wall" erected, a Personnel Security Board hearing followed.

The hearing was conducted between April 12th and May 6th by Mr. Gordon Gray, Mr. Thomas Morgan, and Dr. Ward V. Evans. On May 27, 1954 the "Gray Board" recommended against Oppenheimer's reinstatement; Dr. Evans dissented. The Board also censured Oppenheimer for opposing the H-bomb program initially and for lacking enthusiasm for it afterwards. On May 28th Oppenheimer was notified of the board's decision, and on June 1st he waived his right to a Personnel Security Review. At this time he requested immediate consideration of his case by the Atomic Energy Commission. On June 12th, the General Manager reviewed the "Gray Board" testimony and submitted his conclusion to the Commission that Oppenheimer's clearance should not be reinstated.

Smyth writes, "In the first six months of 1954, I examined and evaluated the total evidence in the Oppenheimer Case. Allegations questioning the loyalty of Robert Oppenheimer were made in a letter to the FBI in the Fall of 1953. These allegations were made known by Lewis Strauss, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, to his four fellow Commissioners for the first time on December 1, 1953. The matter occupied the Commission from that date until June 29, 1954 when the opinions of the five Commissioners were handed down. I was the sole Commissioner to vote in favor of restoring clearance to Robert Oppenheimer for reasons stated in my dissenting opinion of June 29, 1954" (See Series II, General Subject Files under Biographical information, June 1968, p.2).

The 1954 Oppenheimer clearance hearing resulted in a four-to-one vote against his reinstatement. Commissioners Strauss, Murray, Zuckert, and Campbell voted to revoke his clearance due to "defects of character." Smyth alone dissented from this opinion. He argued that the "defects," six instances in which Oppenheimer's statements and testimony over a period of years had been contradictory, were trivial if not contrived and that Oppenheimer's contributions to the atomic energy program were far greater than any potential security risk he was alleged to pose. At Smyth's memorial service, I.I. Rabi noted that this was Smyth's finest hour, "one thinks of a supreme moment in a person's life when he stood against odds and did the right thing. That was Harry Smyth's fortune and Harry Smyth's greatness" (See Series VIb, Speeches and Testimonies by Colleagues under Memorial service in thanksgiving for the life of Henry Dewolf Smyth 1898-1986, p.7).

Smyth's term as a commissioner of the Atomic Energy Commission ended in 1954 with his voluntary resignation. His resignation was not due to, or in direct answer to, the Commission's final recommendation in the Oppenheimer case. Rather, he found it difficult to work effectively with the chairman Lewis Strauss for personal reasons.

After his resignation from the AEC, Smyth returned to Princeton where he became chairman of the Board of Scientific and Engineering Research, known after May 1959 as the University Research Board. He acted in this capacity until 1966. The board's concerns were developing policies and practices related to Federal support of research, to advise the President of the University, advising on major research projects (especially, the construction of the Princeton-University of Pennsylvania 3-GeV accelerator), and expansion of research on control for peaceful uses of the thermonuclear reaction of the H-bomb. In addition, the Board of Scientific and Engineering Research was interested in developing and promoting the concept of a new University Research Board to be drawn from all divisions of the University so as to assure wide faculty responsibility for acceptance and administration of all major grants and contracts. The University Research Board also oversaw the development of the Plasma Physics Laboratory and the cyclotron laboratory.

Other Princeton activities included serving as chairman of the Faculty Committee on the choice of a new president from 1956-57. He was also chairman of the Committee on Project Research and Inventions, the Higgins and Scientific Research Committees, and the Matterhorn Review Committee. Smyth was particularly interested in the goals and magnitude of the Matterhorn Project which sought to release the nuclear energy locked in the deuterium (heavy hydrogen) in the oceans. In order to release this energy, the deuterium gas must be raised to a temperature of a hundred million degrees. The Matterhorn Project's objectives were to heat deuterium gas to such a temperature, to contain it at that temperature, and to extract energy from it. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and the Livermore Laboratory also worked on this project. Other Princeton concerns were the accelerator project and the problem of computing facilities for the university. Smyth's service to Princeton University ended in 1966 with his retirement as Professor of Physics, Emeritus.

Between 1957 and 1958, Smyth acted as a consultant to the Bank of New York and other manufacturing firms on nuclear power development in the U.S. In addition, Smyth was a member of the Technical Appraisal Task Force of the Edison Electric Institute which studied the status of the technology of nuclear power, October 1956-1960. Its principal report was published in August 1958: "Status and Prospects of Nuclear Power." During this period he continued to speak and write on the relation of science to government and society, and on nuclear power development in this country.

He also served as a consultant to the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy from 1957 to 1958 to develop a federal program for the promotion of U.S. nuclear reactors. Its principal report was published in August 1958: "Proposed Expanded Nuclear Power Program." As a consultant to the Atomic Energy Commission, he was vice-chairman of an Ad Hoc Committee on Reactor Policies and Programs appointed in 1958 by the chairman of the Commission to review the nuclear power situation. The final Committee report was published on December 14, 1959.

In 1961, President Kennedy appointed Smyth the U.S. Representative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a position which had ambassadorial rank. The Senate confirmed his appointment on June 13, 1961. His efforts in the IAEA contributed to the development of nuclear safeguards and, in 1970, to the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). The IAEA had been established in 1957 with the objective to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world; Smyth shared this aim. The agency was primarily concerned with the regulation and advance of atomic and nuclear technology for peacetime uses. It was not a political organization in intent, but rather defined its mission as the desire to educate and assist in the advance of this technology.

After Smyth's death, Glenn Seaborg commented on his role in the IAEA: "[Smyth] came into his assignment during the cold war. Through his superior statesmanship and personal relationships with the Soviet representatives Harry brought a calming influence which achieved an unprecedented atmosphere of rapport within the Agency. In particular Harry Smyth played a key role in the realization of the nonproliferation treaty, one of the two most important arms control agreements ever achieved. Harry's personal diplomacy, sincerity and commitment were paramount in this accomplishment" (See Series VIb, Speeches and Testimonies by Colleagues under Memorial service in thanksgiving for the life of Henry DeWolf Smyth 1898-1986, p. 10).

Smyth's duties while Representative to the IAEA included attendance at IAEA meetings in Vienna several times a year, which lasted from three to six weeks each time. The major meetings were: the Board of Governors of the IAEA, composed of 25 nations, which met regularly each February, June and September; and the annual General Conference of the full membership (99 nations) which lasted for a week to ten days. When not in Vienna, his IAEA responsibilities involved bi-weekly consultations in Washington with officials of the State Department and the U.S. AEC on IAEA matters. During his absence from Vienna, the permanent staff of five were headed by Smyth's deputy, a U.S. Foreign service officer with the rank of minister; all five members of his staff were residents year-round in Vienna.

During Smyth's service to the IAEA, his efforts were primarily directed toward two goals: to limit international recriminations in the meetings of the IAEA Board of Governors and the annual General Conference; and to strengthen and promote the IAEA system of safeguards which meant inspection by this international body, which in turn reported to the United Nations, of peaceful atomic energy facilities so as to prevent possible diversion of nuclear material to military use.

In September 1961, he was appointed by Harlan Cleveland, Assistant Secretary of State for International Organizations, as chairman of a committee to review the activities of the IAEA and the U.S. policy toward it. The Committee's report was released to the press June 4, 1962. The report concluded that it was in the interests of the U.S. to promote world use of nuclear power, at the same time take measures to prevent the diversion of nuclear power plants to the manufacture of nuclear weapons. These are the primary objectives of the IAEA as set forth in its statute of 1956.

In October 1962, Smyth was appointed by Harlan Cleveland as advisor to the State Department on matters relating to the IAEA. This involved several months in Washington (on leave from Princeton University) to formulate further U.S. policy toward the IAEA, particularly for the gradual transfer of U.S. safeguards to the IAEA. Such a policy of gradual transfer of safeguards (i.e. measures to prevent diversion of material in peacetime nuclear facilities to military use) from control by the U.S. to control by the IAEA was approved on January 18, 1963 by U. Alexis Johnson, Deputy Under-Secretary of State, in an Action Memorandum.

Smyth was a member of the U.S. delegation to the second and third Atoms for Peace International conferences in 1958 and in 1964 respectively. From 1965 to 1970 he was Chairman of the Board of the Universities Research Association (URA) which was a consortium of forty-eight universities incorporated to serve as contractor with the U.S. Atomic Energy Agency to build a national accelerator at Weston, Illinois. URA saw to the establishment of Fermilab, the U.S. high energy physics laboratory. After 1970 he was a member-at-large for the Association. Even after his mandatory retirement from Princeton in 1966, and from the IAEA in 1970, Smyth remained interested in the progress of nuclear research and nuclear policy. In 1985, he issued a statement in support of bilateral reduction of nuclear weapons.

Throughout his career, Smyth received numerous awards. The first of these was Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson Award which was given in 1964. In 1967 he received an Atomic Energy Citation for outstanding service in the nation's atomic energy program. The following year he received the Atoms for Peace Award for his contributions in promoting international cooperation in the non-military development of nuclear energy. In 1970 he received the Department of State's "Distinguished Honor Award" for outstanding service. In 1972 he was the first recipient of the "nuclear statesmanship" award which was established jointly by the American Nuclear Society and the Atomic Industrial Forum; in 1974 the award was named in his honor the Henry DeWolf Smyth Nuclear Statesman Award. In 1977, he received a special award for distinguished service from the IAEA. Smyth's activities with other institutions included service as an associate editor for the Physical Review from 1927-30; a member of the subcommittee on physics of the National Research Council from 1928-35; and, a member of the Editorial Board of the Princeton University Press for the periods 1946-1949, and 1959-1961. He was also on the Board of Directors of the Atomic Industrial Forum, and a member of the Executive Committee, as well as a vice-president. He served a three-year term, 1955-58, as a member of the Governing Board of the American Institute of Physics.

Smyth was a fellow of the American Physical Society (elected vice-president 1956, and president 1957), and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (elected 1956), the American Philosophical Society (elected 1947), Council on Foreign Relations (N.Y.), Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. He received honorary degrees from Drexel Institute (D.Sc., 1950), Case Institute of Technology (D.Sc., 1953), Hamilton College (D.Sc., 1965), Rutgers University (LL.D., 1968), and Princeton University (D.Sc., 1977).

Smyth wrote that "the possible uses of nuclear energy are not all destructive. The second direction in which technical development can be expected is along the paths of peace.... [T]he future possibilities of such explosives are appalling and their effects on future wars and international affairs are of fundamental importance. Here is a new tool for mankind, a tool of unimaginable destructive power. Its development raises many questions that must be answered in the near future....These questions are not technical questions; they are political and social questions, and the answers given to them may affect all mankind for generations." 9. When he wrote this he could not have been aware of how significant a role he was to play in determining the direction of atomic energy development.

After a long bout with cancer, Smyth died on 11 September 1986 of cardiac arrest. He was 88 years old.

Notes
  1. For biographical information see Physics Today, May 1989, p.98.
  2. American Philosophical Society. Yearbook, 1987, p.214.
  3. Physics Today, May 1989, p.98.
  4. Vincent C. Jones. Manhattan: the Army and the Atomic Bomb, (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1985), pp.26-40.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Henry DeWolf Smyth case file in APS Library. Bill Forbush memorandum, 7 June 1982, p. 3.
  7. Henry DeWolf Smyth. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1945), 1 Jul. 1945 preface, p.vi.
  8. Henry DeWolf Smyth case file in APS Library. Bill Forbush memorandum, 7 June 1982, p.4-5.
  9. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, p.224-26.
Scope and content

The Henry DeWolf Smyth Papers (1885-1987) contain correspondence, subject files, speeches, manuscripts of unpublished and published works, reprints and printed publications, scientific class notes and papers, newspaper clippings, photographs, and memorabilia which document Smyth's career as a physicist and a statesman. The earliest piece in the collection is his father's Columbia College class photograph dating from 1885, while the most recent item is a transcript of Smyth's memorial service in 1987. The papers also contain materials generated by Mary de Coningh Smyth prior to and during her marriage to Henry Smyth; this includes her correspondence and diaries.

While the collection spans Smyth's lifetime, the bulk of the papers dates during his most active and influential career years, approximately 1944 to 1970. Smyth's most memorable achievements and associations occurred during these years, including his work on the Manhattan Project and the Smyth Report and his involvement with the U.S. AEC and the IAEA.

The papers (109 boxes; 54 linear feet) are divided into fifteen series:

Series I Professional Correspondence 19.5 linear feet
Series II General Subject Files 5 linear feet
Series III AEC Subject Files 2 linear feet
Series IV IAEA Subject Files 6.5 linear feet
Series V Smyth Report 4 boxes; 2 linear feet
Series VI Speeches and Testimonies
A. by HDS 2 linear feet
B. by Colleagues 1 linear foot
Series VII Manuscripts of Unpublished Works by HDS 0.5 linear feet
Series VIII Manuscripts of Published Works by HDS 1.5 linear feet
Series IX Reprints, Journals, and Publications 5.5 linear feet
Series X Class Notes and Papers
A. Taken by HDS 0.5 linear feet
B. Given by HDS 0.5 linear feet
Series XI Personal Correspondence 0.5 linear feet
Series XII Mary de Coningh Smyth Papers
A. Correspondence 2 linear feet
B. Diaries 2 linear feet
Series XIII Clippings 1 linear foot
Series XIV Photographs 1 linear foot
Series XV Memorabilia 0.5 linear feet
Series I-XV Oversize Materials 0.5 linear feet

Materials in oversize box #1 follow the same series arrangement as noted above. Unusual formats, such as rolled diplomas, certificates, and scrapbooks are located in oversize box #2. Cross referencing to these oversize boxes appears on the folders in the standard size boxes and on the container list.

Although the professional correspondence of Series I represents the largest part of the collection, other smaller series contain noteworthy material. Perhaps the most valuable papers to researchers will be found in Series V, relating to the Smyth Report. This series holds revealing correspondence and manuscript drafts relating to the written history of the Manhattan Project. Information which remained classified in 1945 and could not be included in the original edition of the Smyth Report has since been declassified and filed with Series V.

Researchers focusing on Smyth's career will also find material of note relating to his dissenting opinion in the Oppenheimer security case in Series VIII, Manuscripts of Published Works as well as Series I, Professional Correspondence. Other valuable aspects of the collection are the detailed diaries of Mary Smyth in Series XII; her entries record important dates, events, and commentary relating to her husband's career.

Collection information

Provenance

The Smyth Papers were donated by Henry DeWolf Smyth in three major accessions. The first group of materials, approximately four file drawers and six cartons of publications, was presented by Smyth to the American Philosophical Society Library in July of 1982 and assigned accession #1982-881ms. The second gift of ca. twenty-eight linear feet was assigned accession #1987-1790ms. A third accession, ca. twenty linear feet, came after Smyth's death as a gift of his estate in February of 1987 and was assigned #1987-1789ms. Finally, three medals presented to Smyth were received by the library in June of 1987 from the Horizon Trust Company on behalf of Smyth's estate and assigned accession #1987-791me.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Henry DeWolf Smyth Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Catalogued by J. Stephen Catlett, Martin L. Levitt, Elaine M. McCluskey, and Timothy T. Wilson, October 1991.

General note

Conservation Note

This collection has been refiled and rehoused in acid-free folders and boxes. All metal fasteners were removed and replaced with plastic clips when necessary. Many brittle and torn items, primarily newspaper clippings, have been photocopied onto Permalife bond paper. After this process, original clippings were discarded.

If a deteriorating item was determined valuable in its original state, a white acid-free marker was placed in its folder. A list of these manuscripts has been compiled by series and will be submitted for in-house conservation.

The atomic bomb scrapbooks of Series XIII, Clippings, have been filed temporarily in Oversize Box #2. As the newspaper clippings are severely brittle, discolored, and torn, it is recommended that these scrapbooks be microfilmed when possible.

Note on Abbreviations

The following abbreviations appear throughout the container list:

  • AEC : Atomic Energy Commission
  • DSM : Development of Substitute Materials Project
  • EURATOM : European Atomic Energy Community
  • HDS : Henry DeWolf Smyth
  • IAEA : International Atomic Energy Commission
  • INDC : Interim International Nuclear Data Committee
  • JCAE : Joint Committee on Atomic Energy
  • JRO : J. Robert Oppenheimer
  • LASL : Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
  • MdeCS : Mary de Coningh Smyth
  • n.d. : no date
  • NDRC : National Defense Research Committee
  • NPT : Nonproliferation Treaty
  • OSRD : Office of Scientific Research and Development
  • UNAEC : United Nations Atomic Energy Commission
  • UNO : United Nations Organization

Collection overview
1916-86 

contains the incoming and outgoing manuscript, typescript, and carbon letters, transcripts of telephone conversations, telegrams, and postcards generated during Smyth's career. The series is arranged alphabetically by correspondent, corporate, or subject name and then chronologically within each file. This professional correspondence constitutes the most voluminous series of the Smyth Papers.

These files do not contain correspondence exclusively. Essays, short papers or abstracts, photographs, reports, minutes, and photocopies of newspaper clippings remain throughout Series I with the accompanying correspondence. Cross referencing exists for files which contain letters generated by writers other than the primary correspondent listed as the folder title. These materials usually appear in the form of carbon copies which were enclosed with letters sent to Smyth by the individual who appears as the folder title. Names of correspondents whose carbon copies, papers, or reports are filed in this manner are listed on the outside of the primary correspondent's folder (folder #1 if multiple folders exist per name). For the most part, these listings reflect the physical order in which the material appears throughout the folder(s). Complete cross referencing for these items has been incorporated on the container list.

Smyth's correspondents include colleagues from Princeton University, fellow scientists from institutions around the country, government officials, associates from the U.S. AEC and the IAEA, officers of various professional and honorary scientific societies, administrators of businesses and corporations concerned with the uses of atomic energy, fans and critics of the Smyth Report, journalists, publishers, and historians. Correspondence is filed mainly by personal name, although there is a significant portion of material in Series I which has been organized under corporate or subject name. This most often occurs in cases where Smyth collected correspondence and related materials dealing with specific events and organizations rather than separating it by individual correspondents' names. These topical files remain intact as arranged by Smyth primarily because the related correspondence appears more valuable when maintained under the original heading assigned by Smyth. Individual correspondents in such files are listed on the outside of the folders and cross referenced on the container list. Examples of these types of subject files containing various correspondents include Smyth's "invitations to join/speak," the "American Physical Society," and the "Oppenheimer security clearance." These files have been placed in Series I rather than with the other subject files of Series II because they are almost entirely correspondence.

The correspondence files primarily chronicle Smyth's involvements with Princeton University, the Smyth Report, the U.S. AEC, and the IAEA. The bulk of this material dates from 1944 to 1970, during his most active career years. Throughout this period, Smyth was continuously involved with the Princeton University physics department. A considerable amount of administrative correspondence generated throughout Smyth's tenure at Princeton is located in Series I under the names of various university officials, professors, and administrators. The development of the Princeton physics program in the twentieth century is documented through much of these memoranda, letters, and transcripts of telephone conversations. Perhaps the most valuable of this Princeton related correspondence dates from 1940 through 1945, reflecting the university's Manhattan Project research focusing on the production of an atomic bomb.

Researchers should note that correspondence dealing with the writing and editing of the Smyth Report is mainly located in Series V, Smyth Report. This correspondence appears to have been filed by Smyth with related materials (i.e., notes, draft manuscripts, early printings) for several reasons. His primary intent appears to have been continuity; the correspondence discussing his work on the Smyth Report often refers to specific drafts, now also filed in Series V. These letters were also often classified "Secret" and "Top Secret" along with his various manuscript versions from 1944 through 1945. These materials remained together over the years while in Smyth's possession, periodically undergoing review for declassification as a group by the U.S. AEC. For these reasons, as well as the fact that Smyth meticulously arranged Series V himself, the correspondence dealing with the Smyth Report has been maintained in its original order and assigned to this separate series. Cross referencing has been done for correspondents who appear in Series V, Smyth Report; the existence of letters in Series V has been noted under the appropriate correspondent's name in the Series I section of the container list.

While it is recommended that researchers interested in correspondence dealing with the Smyth Report see Series V, it should be noted that a certain amount of this correspondence does exist in Series I as well. In many cases, these letters deal with comments, criticisms, and corrections to the first edition of the Smyth Report in 1945. Any correspondence of this nature has been identified in the "Notes" column of the container list.

Smyth's term as a commissioner to the U.S. AEC from 1949 through 1954 produced correspondence focusing on the peaceful uses of nuclear power, continued U.S. research in the field of nuclear energy, and the internal politics and administration of the AEC. For the most part, AEC related correspondence is dispersed throughout Series I, filed under correspondent's name. The most significant correspondence dealing with Smyth's involvement with the AEC is filed with the subject heading "Oppenheimer security clearance." Five folders contain letters sent from colleagues in the science community across the country, voicing their support for Oppenheimer, outrage at the actions of the AEC, and agreement with Smyth's dissenting opinion. Also located in these folders is much of the preliminary correspondence between Smyth, Lewis R. Strauss, and their fellow commissioners as the Oppenheimer investigation unfolded.

Smyth's involvement with the Edison Electric Institute's Technical Appraisal Task Force is thoroughly documented in thirteen correspondence files which span nearly three boxes of Series I. The Task Force material appears in the form of agendas, reports, and minutes enclosed with correspondence. These letters and documents comprise one of the largest corporate files of Series I; much of the material discusses the development of nuclear power and the construction of reactors in the United States from ca. 1956 to 1960. Another large corporate file holds the correspondence, reports, and minutes of the Universities Research Association, Inc. Fifteen folders record the development of high-energy accelerators in laboratories across the U.S. from 1964 to 1979.

Other significant correspondence files record Smyth's work as consultant to the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy. Letters with accompanying reports, press releases, statements, and testimonies before the committee are located in ten correspondence folders of Series I. Most of this material focuses on the development of a federal program to promote nuclear reactors in the U.S. during the late 1950s.

Correspondence dealing with Smyth's years as U.S. Representative to the IAEA is generally filed by individual correspondent's name. Some of the most notable correspondents of Series I involved with the IAEA are Sigvard Eklund and Richard Tolman. The files of these IAEA correspondents and many others offer material which records the development of nuclear safeguards and the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970.

Overall, perhaps the most historically valuable correspondence of Series I deals with Smyth's work for the Manhattan District during World War II. Besides the detail-rich letters and documents found in Series V which focus on Smyth's technical history of the development of the atomic bomb, there is a significant amount of similar correspondence in the files of Series I. Other than identifying correspondents in Series I who were also involved with the Manhattan Project, researchers will find much of this material through the "Notes" column of the container list where comments identify OSRD and NDRC related documents.

Among Smyth's most notable correspondents are:

  1. Hans A. Bethe
  2. Norris E. Bradbury
  3. George A. Brakeley
  4. Gregory Breit
  5. Lyman J. Briggs
  6. Vannevar Bush
  7. W. Sterling Cole
  8. Arthur H. Compton
  9. Karl Compton
  10. James B. Conant
  11. Edward U. Condon
  12. Gordon Dean
  13. Lee A. DuBridge
  14. Albert Einstein
  15. Dwight D. Eisenhower
  16. Enrico Fermi
  17. Richard P. Feynman
  18. T. Keith Glennan
  19. Leslie R. Groves
  20. Hubert H. Humphrey
  21. Lyndon B. Johnson
  22. John F. Kennedy
  23. Richard M. Nixon
  24. J. Robert Oppenheimer
  25. Linus Pauling
  26. I. I. Rabi
  27. Ronald Reagan
  28. Franklin D. Roosevelt
  29. Dean Rusk
  30. Ernest B. Rutherford
  31. George Schultz
  32. Glenn T. Seaborg
  33. Emilio Segrè
  34. Lewis L. Strauss
  35. Leo Szilard
  36. Richard C. Tolman
  37. Harry S. Truman
  38. Harold C. Urey
  39. John Von Neumann
  40. Kurt Waldheim
  41. Victor F. Weisskopf
  42. John A. Wheeler
  43. Eugene P. Wigner
1911-87 

contains a variety of materials dating from Smyth's high school days at the Lawrenceville School through the end of his life. The series is arranged alphabetically by subject. Those subject files primarily comprised of correspondence have been placed in Series I. All other subject files contain diverse materials which may include correspondence, minutes, reports, invitations, notes, clippings, inventories, posters and photographs.

Many of the subject files reflect Smyth's participation in scientific and learned societies, and events in the scientific community. Material on the Atomic Energy Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency is located in Series III and Series IV, respectively. The range of subjects in this series includes: Brookhaven National Laboratory; reactions to The Hydrogen Bomb by Blair and Shepley; the Edward U. Condon case before the House Un-American Activities Committee; study group reports by the Council on Foreign Relations; high energy physics policy statements; and the Manhattan Project (S-1, NDRC, uranium notes and data).

In addition, Smyth's Princeton University activities account for a large portion of this series. Material relating to the Smyth Report has been included in this series with three exceptions: loose correspondence which was placed in Series I; four lithoprint copies of the report which were placed in Series IX; and the bulk of Smyth's working drafts, notes, and correspondence which, in their original order, make up Series V.

1949-75 

contains material having to do with the AEC's activity from the time of Smyth's appointment as commissioner through the establishment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1975. The series includes correspondence, minutes, reports, agreements, programs, press releases, policy statements, notes, and drafts. The scope of topics covered includes: the Idaho reactor accident, corrections to an article on Oppenheimer, the civilian power reactor program and thermonuclear weapons. Also of interest are the program booklets for Operations Greenhouse and Castle, which were nuclear testing missions, as well as Lewis L. Strauss' confirmation hearings to become AEC Chairman.

1953-1986 

contains correspondence, reports, calendars, invitations, press releases, photographs, information circulars, and other miscellaneous documents acquired by Smyth during and after his work for the IAEA as U.S. Ambassador. The bulk of the IAEA related material dates from the 1960s, during Smyth's most active years in association with this organization. The IAEA subject files are arranged alphabetically within the series and then chronologically within each folder.

Correspondence is generally found within subject files containing a variety of items, such as reports, meeting agendas, and miscellaneous committee business. All correspondents throughout the IAEA subject files are listed on the outside of folders (folder #1 in cases of multiple folders per subject) and are cross referenced to Series I, Professional Correspondence.

Most of the larger subject files, consisting of multiple folders, pertain to the IAEA annual General Conference and the Board of Governors. These files contain reports which follow a chronological arrangement; each type of report has been assigned a detailed numbering system which has been reproduced as folder titles (i.e., Board of Governors/COM.8/OR.29-COM.18/OR.5). Short descriptions of each type of report are available in the "Notes" column of the container list. While the folders containing these documents are extensive, researchers should note that they are not always complete; in some cases, a gap in the chronological arrangement exists, with reports missing from the consecutive numbering system.

Other subject files document a variety of IAEA concerns and projects. Material dealing with nuclear safeguards, the Nonproliferation Treaty (1970), the Tarapur Project (1962-63), the Atoms for Peace Conferences (1958; 1964), and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste (1963-68) is located throughout Series IV. These files often contain meeting agendas and minutes, reports, and correspondence.

1940-1974 

contains material consulted and generated by Smyth while preparing for the publication of Atomic Energy for Military Purposes, 1945 (the Smyth Report). This series houses some of the most noteworthy documents of the Smyth Papers. Correspondence, notes, drafts, and early printed versions of Smyth's authoritative book on the Manhattan Project provide a detailed record of his preliminary research and writings. Much of this preparatory material as well as the final drafts of Smyth's report on the technical aspects of the atomic bomb remained classified until its official release by the U.S. government in August of 1945. For this reason, nearly all of the documents of Series V bear original "Secret" and "Top Secret" stamps, which have since been marked declassified by the U.S. AEC.

Many of the various formats of Smyth Report material (i.e., correspondence, notes, manuscripts) are related in several ways. Researchers should note that Series V is retained in its original order, as arranged by Smyth during his lifetime. Often these documents contain specific references to each other, which appears to be Smyth's primary reason for maintaining a detailed inventory and separate storage system for his Smyth Report material. Also, these documents periodically underwent classification review by the AEC as a group and were downgraded to "Unclassified" in parts. Since these materials remained together over the years for a variety of reasons, they have been retained in their original order rather than separated by format and filed into other series.

The container list for this series reflects the order of brown envelopes and a "red box" arranged by Smyth (see the first folder of Series V, Box #1 for HDS manuscript "Contents of brown envelopes in third drawer of five drawer file"). The original envelopes and "red box" have been discarded, with their contents transferred to acid-free folders and placed in the standard size archival boxes used throughout the Smyth collection. Researchers will find that any notation from these original envelopes has been photocopied and placed at the front of Folder #1 for each envelope. As Smyth's table of contents and the subsequent container list will show, the documents of Series V generally follow a chronological arrangement, with the bulk of the material dating from 1944-1945.

The Series V portion of the container list follows the same basic format as the rest of the Smyth Papers series, with the exception of occasional areas of text. This text appears in bold at the beginning of each numbered "envelope" and duplicates the manuscript notes written by Smyth in his table of contents. These notes are transcribed exactly as written by Smyth, with occasional additions in brackets for further explanation. Researchers should see the photocopy of the original envelope front, located in the first folder for each envelope, for further manuscript notes by Smyth. Each area of text describing the general contents of an envelope is followed by a container list which duplicates the arrangement of the folders in Box #1-4. Detailed listings of the pagination (i.e., I-1 to 7 refers to Chapter I, pages 1 to 7) for each folder also appears on the container list.

The first envelopes (1, 1a, 1b) contained material used in preparation of the report and are organized alphabetically by personal name or subject heading. This includes correspondence, Smyth's manuscript and typescript notes on meetings, conversations, and research notebooks, short essays, papers, and graphs. Correspondence is the most prevalent format throughout these first envelopes, consisting of manuscript, typescript, and carbon letters from military personnel and scientists who provided Smyth with background information on the history and development of the U.S. atomic bomb program. Other correspondence from scientific colleagues at laboratories across the U.S. offer comments, criticism, and early editing of various draft versions before release to the public.

Researchers should be aware that all correspondents filed in Series V have been cross referenced to Series I, Professional Correspondence. While a significant portion of correspondence relating to the Smyth Report is found in Series V, similar correspondence is also found in Series I. Although Smyth did separate much of the Smyth Report correspondence from his other professional correspondence files, some was not pulled and set aside with other Smyth Report materials. This related correspondence is identified in Series I in the "Notes" column of the container list.

The next group of envelopes (2-15) contains drafts of chapters I-XIII in manuscript and typescript form. These drafts are arranged by chapter, often containing various versions with extensive manuscript notes and changes made by Smyth and colleagues he asked to edit his work. Notes mainly appear within the text or in the columns, although an occasional page of notes will be filed within the pages of the draft itself. Complete typescript carbon copies of the Smyth Report (in his notes Smyth indicates these were originally bound) which contain similar editing on the pages are located in later envelopes (23-25).

Seven complete mimeograph versions of the Smyth Report, copies #10, 18, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, are located in Series V (envelopes 17-19 and the "red box" at the end of the arrangement). The pages of these mimeograph versions are printed front to back, with many manuscript notes by Smyth throughout the text. Researchers should see Series IX, Reprints, Journals, and Publications for the offprint from The Princeton University Library Chronicle, Volume XXXVII, Number 3, Spring 1976. This will provide a detailed description of the mimeograph version as well as other printed versions and editions of the Smyth Report.

Four complete lithoprint versions of the Smyth Report are also located in Series IX, Reprints, Journals, and Publications. As these early printings were not part of Smyth's original arrangement, they have been housed with similar formats found in Series IX. While there is a certain amount of related Smyth Report material dispersed throughout the rest of the collection, as in the case of these lithoprint versions, only those documents which were a part of Smyth's original table of contents are filed in Series V. Lithoprint versions immediately preceded the Princeton University Press first edition of September, 1945. Researchers who are interested in the printed versions of the Smyth Report before this first edition should see the lithoprints of Series IX.

When comparing the container list to Smyth's original table of contents, researchers will note that several numbered envelopes have been labeled "missing." Detailed information on these envelopes is located in the first three folders of Box 1. The missing envelopes apparently contained documents which remained classified over the years. These materials remained at Princeton University's Forrestal Laboratory until 1983. At that time, the U.S. AEC determined that the lab no longer met appropriate security requirements, and Smyth made arrangements to have the classified documents transferred to the custody of the Department of Energy History Division in Washington, D.C. As these documents are declassified, they will be sent to the American Philosophical Library. (For further information on the classification status of these materials, consult the Manuscripts Librarian.)

All of the originally classified information on the development of the atomic bomb in Series V has been declassified after undergoing review by the AEC in 1961 and 1970. Stamps on documents throughout the series indicate the date declassification was granted. Besides providing a history of the writing of the Smyth Report, this series is also valuable as a record of the release of technical information on the building of the atomic bomb. Careful reading of comments and marginalia on drafts of the report reveals what information was originally censored in 1944-45 and when this material was later declassified.

1945-1987 

consists of notes, outlines, abstracts, autograph manuscript and typescript drafts, and final printed transcripts divided into two subseries. Speeches given by Smyth are arranged alphabetically by title in Subseries A (Boxes 1-4) and date from 1945 through 1980. The bulk of this material was produced in mid-career (1950s-1960s), while Smyth was involved with the U.S. AEC and IAEA. As the inclusive dates for this subseries show, Smyth was asked by many professional and honorary societies, clubs, and scientific organizations to speak to their groups after his involvement in documenting the history of the Manhattan Project was revealed with the release of the Smyth Report in 1945. Topics of these speeches generally focus on the development and peaceful uses of atomic energy, including the history of nuclear bombs, reactors, and safeguards. As a nationally recognized authority on such subjects, Smyth was often asked to prepare statements for testimony before United States congressional committees; these transcripts are located in Subseries A as well. The most prominent format throughout this material is Smyth's manuscript drafts, often appearing in a number of revisions. Several of Smyth's speeches were reprinted in scientific journals and popular magazines; copies of these reprints have been filed with their original manuscript versions.

Speeches and testimonies of Smyth's colleagues are arranged alphabetically by author's name (then alphabetically by title if more than one speech exists) in Subseries B (Boxes 5-6). These materials are dated 1945 through 1987, the most recent being the transcript of a " Memorial service in thanksgiving for the life of Henry DeWolf Smyth." Many of these speeches by colleagues in the scientific community and the government offices of the U.S. AEC and the IAEA were given during the 1950s and focus on similar topics to Smyth's speeches from the same period. For this reason, the material of Subseries B compliments much of Smyth's work in Subseries A. Speeches by colleagues were collected by Smyth and often deal with issues involving nuclear power and proliferation. They usually appear in the form of transcripts which were sent to Smyth by the authors after they were given before an audience.

1914-15; 1941-74 

contains notes, outlines, reviews, and autograph and typescript drafts generated by Smyth during his years of involvement with Princeton University, the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), and the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). Writings are arranged alphabetically by title. The earliest material in this series is Smyth's 1914 high school paper entitled "Sea power in the American Revolution."

Of interest are two chapters of his autobiography which concern his childhood and some of his experiences in World War II. A large number of items are draft reports for the NDRC and the OSRD, some of which concern the peacetime plans for the Development of Substitute Materials (DSM). There is a draft history of the preparation of the Smyth Report and many drafts having to do with secrecy. The latest material in the series consists of his 1974 drafts, notes and correspondence on the "History of the H-Bomb."

1919-77 

contains autograph and typescript drafts, notes, outlines and printers' proofs. Relevant correspondence having to do with some items has been kept in this series when appropriate. Some items have both Smyth's marginalia and that of other editors. The earliest piece in this series is Smyth's 1919 paper "Radiating Potentials of Nitrogen." Perhaps the most important writings in this series are the drafts of Smyth's "Dissenting Opinion...in the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer." The early drafts bear little resemblance to the final of this statement which includes revisions throughout the day and night of 29 June 1954. Also significant are the drafts of "The Need for International Safeguards" which discuss the role of safeguards in inhibiting the spread of nuclear weapons in the context of the Nonproliferation Treaty. The most recent items in the series are the drafts of "The `Smyth Report,' " a history which was published in the Princeton University Library Chronicle.

1913-85 

contains reprints, reports, journal issues, photocopies and typescripts of scientific papers, and reviews prepared by Smyth's colleagues. Notes, data and abstracts of these papers are included as well. The series is organized alphabetically by author name, or by title when the author is unknown. Smyth's reprints appear in this series rather than with his manuscripts of published works (Series VIII). Complete journal issues have been treated in one of two ways: if the article of interest to Smyth was indicated, the issue was entered under the article's author; if no article was marked or the entire issue seemed to be of interest, the issue was entered under the journal title.

The principal subjects covered in this series are ionization, atomic energy and its uses, proliferation of nuclear weapons, and the Oppenheimer security clearance case. Of special interest is Smyth's collection of OSRD reports (Office of Scientific Research and Development) which are organized by author name. These include papers written during the Manhattan Project by such scientists as Richard Feynman, and Robert R. Wilson. For a complete list of OSRD reports see Series II, General Subject Files under " Princeton University. OSRD Project SSRC-5. Contract OEMsr-297".

1916-1935 

is divided into two subseries and contains graphs, unbound loose notes, notebooks, data books, and research papers. Material is arranged chronologically with the physical description (i.e. "graphs") and subject (if known) as folder headings. Series X is primarily of interest as a record of Smyth's early research in physics and for examples of courses he taught at Princeton University. The entire series contains only a small portion of Smyth's scientific notes taken as a student and given as a professor. Only materials relating to his studies and teaching at Princeton University have been preserved by Smyth; notes involving Smyth's research at Cambridge do not exist in this collection.

Scientific class notes taken by Smyth as an undergraduate student at Princeton are located in Subseries A (Box 1) and date from 1916 through 1919. Folders are entitled with references such as "Mechanics Problems" and "Senior Experimental Physics." Material dating from 1919 appears to relate to Smyth's independent research on nitrogen with Professor Karl Compton of the Princeton physics department after he received an A.B. in 1918 but before he entered his masters program.

Subseries B (Box 2) holds Smyth's notes prepared for physics courses he taught at Princeton from 1927 through 1935. These materials take the form of lecture and experiment notes and are often referred to by course title (i.e. "Physics 109"). Researchers should note that Subseries B only provides a small sampling of his teaching at Princeton; unfortunately, a greater portion of his preparatory course material was not preserved.

  Box Series X-1
  Box Series X-2
1902-1987 

Contains the typescript and manuscript letters, carbon copies, postcards, and telegrams generated between Smyth and his family members and friends throughout his lifetime. Materials are arranged alphabetically by correspondent's name and then chronologically within each file. A major portion of this personal correspondence dates during the 1920s, when Smyth was traveling and studying abroad as a young man. Another significant group of correspondence in this series is dated 1945; these letters are primarily congratulatory notes from friends and family to Smyth after his work with the Manhattan Project and the Smyth Report was revealed to the public.

The bulk of Smyth's personal correspondence involves his family members. A letter from Smyth as a child in 1902 to his grandfather, [?] Phelps, is the earliest piece of this series as well as the first manuscript in the Smyth Papers bearing his signature. Dictated to and typed by his paternal grandfather, Charles H. Smyth, this charming letter describes the ponies, canal boats, trains, and trollies seen by Smyth at age three; unable to sign his name at this young age, Smyth places an "X" besides his typed name.

The most noteworthy family letters in this series are written by Smyth to his parents while studying for a Ph.D. at Cambridge University (1921-1923) and as a Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow in GC6ttingen (1931-1932). A postcard to his father dated 1922 displays the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge, where Smyth studied under Ernest Rutherford. These manuscripts contain extensive descriptive information regarding Smyth's research and travels in Europe. Researchers should note that these materials are filed as " Smyth, Charles H., Jr. and Ruth Anne (Phelps)" in eight chronologically arranged folders.

Other family correspondence of interest is filed under " Smyth, Charles P." These are letters of condolence received by Smyth's elder brother after his death in 1986. Mainly from colleagues and close friends, the letters are addressed to Smyth's brother Charles and are therefore filed with his correspondence. Friends who were also professional correspondents with Smyth have been cross referenced to their primary folders in Series I.

Personal correspondence involving Smyth's friends is primarily dated from the earlier part of the twentieth century. Correspondence between Smyth and close friends later in his career usually involves colleagues and associates; therefore, these manuscripts have been filed with the professional correspondence of Series I. Letters from friends he met during his travels abroad and across the United States as a young man remain with the personal correspondence of Series XI.

1928-1979 

consists of correspondence (Subseries A, Boxes 1-4) and diaries (Subseries B, Boxes 5-8) maintained by Smyth's wife throughout their courtship and marriage. Letters from Henry Smyth to his wife have been filed in this series instead of with his personal correspondence of Series XI. This was done primarily because these manuscripts were stored with Mary Smyth's letters to her husband and appeared to have been preserved and arranged by her after their marriage. All other correspondence in the papers of Series XII consists of incoming letters received by Mary Smyth or copies of her outgoing letters. The earliest piece of this series is a letter from Smyth to Mary de Coningh dated 1928 in which he refers to their recent meeting in Europe.

Mary de Coningh Smyth was born in Chicago, Illinois to Lucy and Frederick de Coningh on New Year's Eve, 1904. She was raised with her two brothers, Peter C. and Edward Hurlburt de Coningh, in "one of the old houses" on the prosperous south side of Chicago (see Series II, General Subject Files under wedding announcement). After preparing at the Faulkner School for Smith College, she attended Smith in Massachusetts for four years and was graduated in 1926. Upon completion of her degree, Mary de Coningh spent several years traveling and studying abroad, including some work at the Sorbonne in Paris. During these early years in Europe, she started a career in journalism and worked on a newspaper in Geneva, Switzerland. It appears from her initial correspondence with Smyth that it was at this time they made their first acquaintance and began an approximately eight year-long friendship/courtship.

After her marriage, Mary Smyth applied the skills which she had developed in her own profession to managing her husband's career as a prominent Princeton University physics professor and department head, statesman, and historian. She often acted as his personal secretary, editor, and writing associate. Besides providing intellectual support to Smyth's career, she appears to have been solely responsible for the maintenance, both physical and financial, of their homes in Princeton and Washington, D.C.

Subseries A holds four boxes of correspondence generated and collected by Mary Smyth for the near fifty years she was associated with Henry Smyth. Correspondence exists in the form of incoming and outgoing manuscript and typescript letters, carbon and handwritten copies, telegrams, and cards. It is organized alphabetically by correspondent's name and then chronologically within each file.

The most significant run of correspondence in this series consists of letters written between Henry and Mary Smyth. The bulk of this material dates between 1928 and 1936, documenting the years of their courtship. Much of this correspondence refers to Smyth's early research and teaching in the Princeton University physics department as well as Mary Smyth's work with the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations. Although correspondence between husband and wife after their marriage does exist, it is not nearly as regular and extensive. Obviously, their long distance relationship between Chicago and Princeton required much more written correspondence.

This personal correspondence between Mary Smyth and her husband has been filed within this series under " Smyth," with letters from Henry Smyth to Mary Smyth arranged first, and Mary Smyth to Henry Smyth second. This was done primarily because Smyth's letters to his fiancée and wife start at an earlier date. All correspondence between the two which has been preserved ends in 1976. It should also be noted by researchers that this personal correspondence is not always fully dated, carrying only notations such as "Monday evening." For this reason, readers should take extreme care to maintain the original order of the letters as they appear in each folder. These manuscripts were left in the same order they were found and labeled; as their text appears to follow a general chronological order, no attempt has been made to reorder these files.

Other correspondents of Subseries A mainly include family members and friends, although there is also a small amount of material relating to Mary Smyth's duties as personal secretary to her husband. Many personal, family-related matters are discussed in letters to and from her brother Edward ("Edro") de Coningh. Mary Smyth's involvements in local Princeton politics and culture are reflected in her correspondence as well; several folders containing material relating to her work as secretary to the New Jersey Adlai Stevenson for President Committee (1956) and her patronage of the McCarter Theatre for the Performing Arts of Princeton University (1961-1973) document such activities. Occasional correspondence between Mary Smyth and her husband's colleagues and their wives provides a limited view of the Smyths' social life. Descriptive entries in her diaries offer a much more detailed look at their socializing in Princeton and Washington, D.C.

The diaries of Subseries B offer extensive personal and historical information relating to the Smyth marriage and Henry Smyth's career. Field in four boxes, these bound volumes are arranged chronologically by year. Starting in 1935 and ending in 1970, Mary Smyth chronicles her marriage in three entries per day; morning, afternoon, and evening notes record her chores, pastimes, emotions, illnesses, appointments, travels, and social events. Entries often provide detailed information regarding her husband's scientific work and government involvements; as such, they offer some of the most accurate and insightful documentation of Henry Smyth's career found in the Smyth Papers. Both Smyth and his wife recognized the historical significance of these volumes, as they both often used them to verify dates of important meetings, letters written and received, drafts of speeches and manuscripts prepared for publication, telephone calls, etc.

Mary Smyth's dedicated support of her husband's career is fully illustrated throughout her diaries. As mentioned earlier, she often worked as his personal secretary at home, writing and typing letters and manuscripts. Many materials throughout the Smyth Papers bear her handwriting and edits; Mrs. Smyth's diary entries record the amount of time spent on this work and provide much insight into Henry Smyth's thoughts and concerns when collaborating with his wife. Probably the most significant instance of this occurs in the 1954 diary, in which Mrs. Smyth documents her day by day involvement with Henry Smyth and his U.S. AEC assistants, Clark Vogel and Philip Farley, on the Oppenheimer dissenting opinion. Comments on their progress as entered in the diary are further illustrated by manuscript drafts of the "Dissenting opinion of Henry DeWolf Smyth in the matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer [in U.S. AEC "Statement by the AEC"]" filed in Series VIII with manuscripts of published works.

The diaries of Subseries B also illustrate Mary Smyth's management of their homes in Princeton, New Jersey and Washington, D.C. Many entries refer to her handling of household related finances and supervision of employees. Mrs. Smyth was also responsible for planning all social events held in their homes. Diaries hold much detailed information regarding their cocktail parties and dinners, including lists of invited guests (noting those who actually attended), menus, and her personal comments on the following day. These social gatherings were often for pleasure, including close friends and colleagues of Henry Smyth. It does appear that some events were organized primarily for U.S. AEC, IAEA, or Princeton University physics department associates.

  Box Series XII-1
  Box Series XII-5
1917; 1936-85 

is composed of Smyth's newspaper and magazine clippings, some of which are arranged in scrapbooks, and a few complete newspapers. The bulk of the material covers activities from 1945 to 1954. During this period Smyth collected in many areas, most notably the social and political impact of the atomic bomb, the J. Robert Oppenheimer security clearance case, and the nomination of Lewis L. Strauss for Secretary of Commerce. The atomic bomb scrapbook is arranged chronologically and begins with the reports on Hiroshima from 6 August 1945. It also covers the release of the "Smyth Report" and its reception by the public.

Smyth's clippings regarding the Oppenheimer case are extensive. They reflect the diversity of opinion in the country and document Smyth's public response to the case. The clippings on the Oppenheimer case, and perhaps other subjects as well, were in large part collected by Mary Smyth (see HDS letter to Templeton Peck, 22 Apr. 1963, Series I). The press accounts of the Strauss hearing discuss many issues involving the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The clippings illustrate Strauss' public image, or, at least, the public's opinion of him.

For purposes of conservation, all newspaper clippings, with the exception of the scrapbooks, have been photocopied onto acid free paper. The scrapbooks have been left intact and will be microfilmed; they are stored with the oversized materials at the end of the collection.

1885-1983 

contains black and white photographs in various sizes which are organized alphabetically by subject or last name and then chronologically within each file; unidentified material is filed as "unknown." The majority of photographs measure 8x10" or smaller; for the most part, they are filed within two standard size boxes. Larger formats are located in oversize storage and follow the same arrangement as noted above. The earliest image of this series dates 18 December 1885 and depicts Smyth's father, Charles Henry Smyth, Jr., with his 1888 class of chemists and metallurgists at the Columbia College School of Mines. A 1983 photograph of the [Princeton University?] physics faculty and research staff with an elderly Smyth in the front row appears to be the most recent image in Series XIV.

Photographs are those of Smyth, family members, professional associates, events, and places. Smyth's portraits, individual, and group photographs are organized into three folders. As many of his photographs remain undated, these folders have been arranged by Smyth's approximate age. Fortunately, quite a few of Smyth's portraits from infancy through early childhood (often with his elder brother, Charles Phelps Smyth) have been preserved; these date from ca. 1898 through 1905 and depict his early years in birthplace Clinton, New York, to his first year in Princeton, New Jersey at the age of seven. This series is particularly strong as a visual record of Smyth and de Coningh family members. Many of these images were removed from a large folder carrying Mary de Coningh Smyth's monogram.

Series XIV offers a wide range of interesting images which relate to significant events in Smyth's lifetime. An early group photograph of the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University ca. 1922 contains Smyth as a young student as well as colleagues Ernest Rutherford and J. J. Thomson. Other group photographs of note include those involving U.S. AEC and IAEA members, as well as those filed with "Smyth family portraits." The latter folder contains a formal portrait of Henry DeWolf Smyth with father and brother in academic gowns. Throughout Series XIV, individuals who have been identified in group photographs are listed on the outside of folders and are cross-referenced on folders filed under their names as well.

1914-1979 

contains a variety of miscellaneous items collected by Smyth during his lifetime and is arranged alphabetically by folder heading. One of the smallest series of the collection, it mainly holds material relating to significant honors and events of Smyth's life and his travels while involved with the IAEA. Two of the most interesting pieces of memorabilia in this series are Smyth's photo I.D. badges used while involved with the Manhattan Project (dated 1944) and Operation Castle (an atomic test at Eniwetok Proving Ground on the Marshall Islands in the winter of 1954).

A portion of the memorabilia consists of documents received at various points in Smyth's education, such as an early Lawrenceville School diploma and Princeton University A.B., A.M., and Ph.D diplomas. Other important items of this nature include certificates of membership for various honorary and professional societies as well as certificates received for his participation in nuclear weapons research and testing. Certificates and medals relating to honors such as Smyth's Atoms for Peace Award (1968) and the Nuclear Statesman Award (1972) are also a part of this series. All medals are stored in the Vault; cross references on folders in the box and the container list direct researchers to request these materials from the Manuscript Librarian.

There is some memorabilia relating to Smyth's travels which dates from his studies at Cambridge University in 1921 through his later years with the IAEA in Vienna. Various maps and tour books can be located in this series, as well as a collection of blank postcards.

  Oversize Box 1 - Series I to XIV
  Oversize 2-Misc. Formats


Detailed Inventory
Series I. Professional Correspondence
1916-86 

contains the incoming and outgoing manuscript, typescript, and carbon letters, transcripts of telephone conversations, telegrams, and postcards generated during Smyth's career. The series is arranged alphabetically by correspondent, corporate, or subject name and then chronologically within each file. This professional correspondence constitutes the most voluminous series of the Smyth Papers.

These files do not contain correspondence exclusively. Essays, short papers or abstracts, photographs, reports, minutes, and photocopies of newspaper clippings remain throughout Series I with the accompanying correspondence. Cross referencing exists for files which contain letters generated by writers other than the primary correspondent listed as the folder title. These materials usually appear in the form of carbon copies which were enclosed with letters sent to Smyth by the individual who appears as the folder title. Names of correspondents whose carbon copies, papers, or reports are filed in this manner are listed on the outside of the primary correspondent's folder (folder #1 if multiple folders exist per name). For the most part, these listings reflect the physical order in which the material appears throughout the folder(s). Complete cross referencing for these items has been incorporated on the container list.

Smyth's correspondents include colleagues from Princeton University, fellow scientists from institutions around the country, government officials, associates from the U.S. AEC and the IAEA, officers of various professional and honorary scientific societies, administrators of businesses and corporations concerned with the uses of atomic energy, fans and critics of the Smyth Report, journalists, publishers, and historians. Correspondence is filed mainly by personal name, although there is a significant portion of material in Series I which has been organized under corporate or subject name. This most often occurs in cases where Smyth collected correspondence and related materials dealing with specific events and organizations rather than separating it by individual correspondents' names. These topical files remain intact as arranged by Smyth primarily because the related correspondence appears more valuable when maintained under the original heading assigned by Smyth. Individual correspondents in such files are listed on the outside of the folders and cross referenced on the container list. Examples of these types of subject files containing various correspondents include Smyth's "invitations to join/speak," the "American Physical Society," and the "Oppenheimer security clearance." These files have been placed in Series I rather than with the other subject files of Series II because they are almost entirely correspondence.

The correspondence files primarily chronicle Smyth's involvements with Princeton University, the Smyth Report, the U.S. AEC, and the IAEA. The bulk of this material dates from 1944 to 1970, during his most active career years. Throughout this period, Smyth was continuously involved with the Princeton University physics department. A considerable amount of administrative correspondence generated throughout Smyth's tenure at Princeton is located in Series I under the names of various university officials, professors, and administrators. The development of the Princeton physics program in the twentieth century is documented through much of these memoranda, letters, and transcripts of telephone conversations. Perhaps the most valuable of this Princeton related correspondence dates from 1940 through 1945, reflecting the university's Manhattan Project research focusing on the production of an atomic bomb.

Researchers should note that correspondence dealing with the writing and editing of the Smyth Report is mainly located in Series V, Smyth Report. This correspondence appears to have been filed by Smyth with related materials (i.e., notes, draft manuscripts, early printings) for several reasons. His primary intent appears to have been continuity; the correspondence discussing his work on the Smyth Report often refers to specific drafts, now also filed in Series V. These letters were also often classified "Secret" and "Top Secret" along with his various manuscript versions from 1944 through 1945. These materials remained together over the years while in Smyth's possession, periodically undergoing review for declassification as a group by the U.S. AEC. For these reasons, as well as the fact that Smyth meticulously arranged Series V himself, the correspondence dealing with the Smyth Report has been maintained in its original order and assigned to this separate series. Cross referencing has been done for correspondents who appear in Series V, Smyth Report; the existence of letters in Series V has been noted under the appropriate correspondent's name in the Series I section of the container list.

While it is recommended that researchers interested in correspondence dealing with the Smyth Report see Series V, it should be noted that a certain amount of this correspondence does exist in Series I as well. In many cases, these letters deal with comments, criticisms, and corrections to the first edition of the Smyth Report in 1945. Any correspondence of this nature has been identified in the "Notes" column of the container list.

Smyth's term as a commissioner to the U.S. AEC from 1949 through 1954 produced correspondence focusing on the peaceful uses of nuclear power, continued U.S. research in the field of nuclear energy, and the internal politics and administration of the AEC. For the most part, AEC related correspondence is dispersed throughout Series I, filed under correspondent's name. The most significant correspondence dealing with Smyth's involvement with the AEC is filed with the subject heading "Oppenheimer security clearance." Five folders contain letters sent from colleagues in the science community across the country, voicing their support for Oppenheimer, outrage at the actions of the AEC, and agreement with Smyth's dissenting opinion. Also located in these folders is much of the preliminary correspondence between Smyth, Lewis R. Strauss, and their fellow commissioners as the Oppenheimer investigation unfolded.

Smyth's involvement with the Edison Electric Institute's Technical Appraisal Task Force is thoroughly documented in thirteen correspondence files which span nearly three boxes of Series I. The Task Force material appears in the form of agendas, reports, and minutes enclosed with correspondence. These letters and documents comprise one of the largest corporate files of Series I; much of the material discusses the development of nuclear power and the construction of reactors in the United States from ca. 1956 to 1960. Another large corporate file holds the correspondence, reports, and minutes of the Universities Research Association, Inc. Fifteen folders record the development of high-energy accelerators in laboratories across the U.S. from 1964 to 1979.

Other significant correspondence files record Smyth's work as consultant to the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy. Letters with accompanying reports, press releases, statements, and testimonies before the committee are located in ten correspondence folders of Series I. Most of this material focuses on the development of a federal program to promote nuclear reactors in the U.S. during the late 1950s.

Correspondence dealing with Smyth's years as U.S. Representative to the IAEA is generally filed by individual correspondent's name. Some of the most notable correspondents of Series I involved with the IAEA are Sigvard Eklund and Richard Tolman. The files of these IAEA correspondents and many others offer material which records the development of nuclear safeguards and the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970.

Overall, perhaps the most historically valuable correspondence of Series I deals with Smyth's work for the Manhattan District during World War II. Besides the detail-rich letters and documents found in Series V which focus on Smyth's technical history of the development of the atomic bomb, there is a significant amount of similar correspondence in the files of Series I. Other than identifying correspondents in Series I who were also involved with the Manhattan Project, researchers will find much of this material through the "Notes" column of the container list where comments identify OSRD and NDRC related documents.

Among Smyth's most notable correspondents are:

  1. Hans A. Bethe
  2. Norris E. Bradbury
  3. George A. Brakeley
  4. Gregory Breit
  5. Lyman J. Briggs
  6. Vannevar Bush
  7. W. Sterling Cole
  8. Arthur H. Compton
  9. Karl Compton
  10. James B. Conant
  11. Edward U. Condon
  12. Gordon Dean
  13. Lee A. DuBridge
  14. Albert Einstein
  15. Dwight D. Eisenhower
  16. Enrico Fermi
  17. Richard P. Feynman
  18. T. Keith Glennan
  19. Leslie R. Groves
  20. Hubert H. Humphrey
  21. Lyndon B. Johnson
  22. John F. Kennedy
  23. Richard M. Nixon
  24. J. Robert Oppenheimer
  25. Linus Pauling
  26. I. I. Rabi
  27. Ronald Reagan
  28. Franklin D. Roosevelt
  29. Dean Rusk
  30. Ernest B. Rutherford
  31. George Schultz
  32. Glenn T. Seaborg
  33. Emilio Segrè
  34. Lewis L. Strauss
  35. Leo Szilard
  36. Richard C. Tolman
  37. Harry S. Truman
  38. Harold C. Urey
  39. John Von Neumann
  40. Kurt Waldheim
  41. Victor F. Weisskopf
  42. John A. Wheeler
  43. Eugene P. Wigner

Other Descriptive Information: Series I. Container List

Abbott, Donald (Mrs.)
  Box Series I: 1

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Abbott, Jere
1967 
Abelson, [?]
1944; n.d. 

- Gunn, [?] [uranium?] separation

Abelson, Philip H.
1962 

- see also Ser. III, Citation - see also Ser. V, Envelope 1a - Lavender's office, Captain. Memo of visit to

Abernethy, Theodore J.
1955 
Able, L. E.
1954 

AEC activity

Abrahams, M.
1969 
Abrahams Magazine Service
  

- see Ser. II, Journals, Sale of

Acheson, Dean
1950 

- see also Peters, Bernard

Acton, Forman S.
  

- see Princeton University. Advisory Comm. on Computer Problems

Adams, Arthur
  

- see Dodds, Harold W.

Adams, R. E.
  

- see Nihlen, Marian M. - see Princeton University. Comm. on Proj. Research & Inventions

Adams, Robert McC.
  

- see Ser. XI, Smyth, Charles P.

Adams, Ruth S.
  

- see Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists - see Invitations to join, attend; assignments to write

Adams, Sherman
  

- see Tennessee Valley Authority

Adams, Tinsley
1963 
Adamson, R. G.
1942 
Adirondack League Club
1945-66 

- Blake, Marian G. - Craig, Clyde G. - Davis, C. B. - Lawrence, William V. - Risley, E. S. - Wardwell, James F.

Adkinson, Burton W.
  

- see American Inst. of Physics

Adler, Edward
1945 

- Norris, E. O. - see also Norris, E. O. re: Smyth Report

Adler, Julius O.
  

- see McCloy, John J.

Adler, Lou
1963 

HDS statement on Fermi prize to JRO

Adult School of Montclair
1946 

- Alyea, Ethan D. - Pratt, Donald (Mrs.) - Soutar, Grace A. (Mrs. Herbert S.)

Aebersold, Paul C.
1944-54 

- see also Wensel, H. T. - see also Ser. V, Envelope 1 - Aebersold, Paul re: electromagnetic separation of uranium; Oak Ridge; Martin Kamen

Afable, P. G.
1965 
Air Travel Magazine
1964 

- Saunders, Keith

Albert, A. A.
1965 

re: Sam Allison

Alberto, Alvaro
1958; 1966 
Alburger, Denise Royal
1967 
Alden, Vern E.
1952 
Alexander, Archibald S.
1956 

- see also Foster, William C. re: Adlai Stevenson

Alexander, Brooke
  

- see Fortune Magazine

Alexander, P. P.
1945-46 

- Compton, Arthur H. - Consodine, William A. - see also Consodine, William A. re: Smyth Report

Alger, Richard W.
  

- see Berman, Morris - see Creighton, William J.

Allan, A. R., Jr.
  

- see Flanders Mill, Inc.

Allan, Henry B.
  

- see Invitations to speak

Allen, A. C.
  

- see Princeton University. Physics Department

Allen, J. H.
1949 
Allen, J. L.
1958 
Allen, Lewis
1964 
Allen, Ward P.
1969 

IAEA-Italian proposal

Allerdice, Corbin
1955 
Allison, Helen C.
  

- see Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Allison, Samuel K.
1941-62 

- Johnson, Thomas H. - see also American Inst. of Physics. Soc. of Exploration Geophysicists - see also American Physical Soc. - see also Compton, Arthur H. - see also Johnson, Thomas H. - see also Oppenheimer security clearance - see also Tolman, Richard C. - see also Ser. II, Mulliken Committee - see also Ser. V, Envelope 1 - Wheeler, John A. re: uranium separation

Alsop, Stewart
1954; n.d. 

article on JRO

Althaus, Jno. K.
  

- see National Consumer Credit Reporting Corporation

Altschul, Frank
  

- see Council on Foreign Relations

Alvarez, Luis
  

- see Bradbury, Norris E. - see Ser. V, Envelope 1 - Alvarez, Luis

Alyea, Ethan D.
  

- see Adult School of Montclair

Alyea, Hubert N.
1951-52 

- see also Ser. VIA, Critiques of basic studies and plans for the nation...

Ambruster, Howard W.
1955 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
1956 

- Billings, Bruce election certificate

American Association of University Professors
1954; 1967 
American Aviation Publications, Inc.
1962; 1964 
American Banker
  

- see Iowa Bankers Association

American Civil Liberties Union
1948 

- Quinlan, David - see also Ser. II, Condon Affair, Edward U.

American Enterprise Association
1954 

- Campbell, W. Glenn - Warren, Frederick H.

American Forestry Association
1956 
American Inst. of Physics
  

- Adkinson, Burton W. - Astin, A. V. - Barton, Henry A. - Brownson, Helen L. - Buchta, J. W. - Burnham, George H. - Colman, J. S. - Condon, Edward U. - Frenkiel, F. N. - Goudsmit, Sam A. - Harnwell, Gaylord P. - Hutchisson, Elmer - King, W. James - Klopsteg, Paul E. - Kone, Eugene H. - Lindsay, R. Bruce - McMillan, J. Howard - Michels, Walter C. - Pegram, George B. - Platt, Joseph B. - Rosapepe, Joseph S. - Ruark, Arthur E. - Sawyer, Ralph A. - Schiff, L. I. - Seitz, Frederick - Stamper, F. Harrison - Strauss, Lewis L. - Sutton, Richard M. - Tober, Edward P. - Waterfall, Wallace includes reports, minutes

Folder #1
1943-49 
Folder #2
1955-65 
American Inst. of Physics. Soc. of Exploration Geophysicists
1956 

- Allison, Samuel K. - Barton, Henry A. - Birge, Raymond T. - Dexter, F. D. - Lindsay, R. B. - Michels, W. C. - Ramsey, Norman F. - Sawyer, Ralph A. - Seitz, Frederick - Slichter, Louis B. - Swann, W. F. G. - Van Vleck, John H. - Wigner, Eugene P. SEG application to join AIP

American Inst. of Physics. Special Committee
1956-57 

- Barton, Henry A. - Dienes, G. J. - Gardner, Irvine C. - Morse, Philip M. - Pegram, George B. - Schilling, Harold K. - Seitz, Frederick AIP relations to its member societies

American Inventory
1951 

- Wald, Robert NBC tv program

American Iron and Steel Institute
1957 
American Men of Science
1949; 1955 

- Cattell, Jaques

American Meteorological Society
1960-61 

- Spengler, Kenneth C.

American Philosophical Society
1924; 1956; 1966 

- Bell, Whitfield J., Jr. - Eisenhart, Luther P.

American Physical Soc.
  Box Series I: 2

- Allison, Samuel K. - Andrew, G. C. - Bailey, Herbert S. - Bardeen, John - Bargmann, V. - Barton, Henry A. - Bassett, Preston R. - Beams, Jesse W. - Beehler, Albert - Bethe, Hans A. - Blaha, Ales - Bloembergen, N. - Bohr, Niels - Bradbury, Norris E. - Brasher, W. K. - Breit, Gregory - Brickwedde, Dean - Bronk, Detlev W. - Brown, J. Moreau - Broyles, Arthur A. - Church, Eugene L. - Clendenin, W. W. - Cohen, V. W. - Coleman, John S. - Conant, James B. - Coomes, E. A. - Coryell, Charles D. - Darrow, Karl K. - Davies, Richard L. - Davis, Robert R. - Dillinger, J. R. - Dubridge, L. A. - Du Mond, Jesse W. - Dunbar, Charles F. - Eaton, V[ernet] E. - Ferguson, W. F. C. - Fisk, James Brown - Fock, V. - Foote, Paul D. - Fowler, John M. - Freers, Edward - Frenkiel, F. N. - Gardner, Irvine C. - Geballe, Ronald - Goldhaber, Maurice - Goudsmit, Sam A. - Hagan, John P. - Halliday, David - Hamilton, Donald R. - Hamilton, E. P. - Harlow, James G. - Havens, W. W., Jr. - Hebb, M. H. - Henderson, John T. - Hesburgh, C. S. C. - Houston, W. V. - Huntoon, R. D. - Hutchisson, Elmer - Jauch, Josef M. - Kelly, Mervin J. - Kester, Robert V. - Killian, James R., Jr. - King, Howard N. - Kinsey, E. L. - Kone, Eugene H. - Korff, Serge A. - Landau, L. - Lindsay, R. B. - Loomis, F. Wheeler - Luke, P. J. - McCormack, James, Jr. - MacLeod, Clifton T. - McMillan, Edwin M. - Marshak, Robert E. - Marshall, Tom A., Jr. - Maxwell, I. R. - Michels, Walter C. - Moore, Philip S. - Morris, J. C. - Nelson, E. L. - Nielsen, J. Rud - Nier, Alfred O. C. - Nierenberg, William A. - Odagiri, Mizuho - O'Neill, Francis S. - O'Neill, Gerard K. - Overbeck, C. J. - Pegram, George B. - Preston, M. A. - Quimby, S. L. - Rabi, I. I. - Ramsey, Norman F. - Regener, Victor H. - Sackett, Walter M. - Schier, O. B. - Schiff, L. I. - Schmitz, Henry - Seeger, Raymond J. - Segre, Emilio - Seitz, Frederick - Sharkey, Florence - Shell, Willis A. - Shrum, G. M. - Snell, Arthur H. - Spitzer, Lyman, Jr. - Sterling, J. E. Wallace - Swann, W. F. G. - Thornton, C. D. W. - Ufford, C. Wilbur - Uhlenbeck, G. E. - Updike, Irving M. - Van Vleck, John H. - Wakeling, Patricia R. - Waterfall, Wallace - Webb, Harold W. - Weinberg, Alvin M. - Weisskopf, Victor F. - Wigner, Eugene P. - Zeleny, John - Zilsel, P. R. - see also Ser. III, Strauss, Lewis L. - Confirmation includes corresp., minutes, reports, by-laws

Folder #1
1923-55 
Folder #2
1956 
Folder #3
Jan.-Mar. 1957 
Folder #4
Apr.-Jun. 1957 
Folder #5
Jul.-Dec. 1957 
Folder #6
1958-59 
American Physical Soc. Comm. on Cooperation w/ Secondary Schools
1957-58 Box Series I: 3

- Beams, Jesse W. - Breit, Gregory - Carlson, William - Eaton, V[ernet] E. - Jauch, Josef M. - Rassweiler, M. - Regener, Victor H. - Urey, Harold C. - Verbrugge, Frank minutes, memos, corresp.

American Political Science Association
1947; n.d. 

- Colegrove, Kenneth

American Scholar, The
1947-53 

- Haydn, Hiram

American Scientist
1954 

journal

American Society for Engineering Education
1949 

- Freund, C. J.

Americas
1954 

journal

Amory, Robert, Jr.
  

- see Harvard University - see Ser. II, Council on Foreign Relations. Nuclear...Strategic...

Amram, Philip W.
1954 
Amrine, Michael
1949-58 
Anderson, Clinton P.
1954-60 

- see also Atomic Energy Comm. national laboratories. The future of - see also Atomic Energy Comm. Shippingport Project - see also Edison Electric Inst. Tech. Appraisal Task Force on Nuclear Power - see also Joint Committee on Atomic Energy - see also Tennessee Valley Authority - see also Ware lecture - see also Williams, Walter J. - see also Ser. III, Reactor Policies and Programs... - see also Ser. VIA, [Gore Bill-S2725. Statement on]

Anderson, E. O.
1947 
Anderson, Harriet
1946 

Smyth Report photos & diagrams

Anderson, Herbert L.
1967-68; n.d. 

- see also Ser. II, First Nuclear Chain Reaction...

Anderson, Marquerite
1942-43 

Chicago "secret" reports in HDS safe

Anderson, Roland A.
1944-57 

- Strauser, W. A. - see also Atomic Energy Comm. HDS consultant to - see also Lavender, Robert A. - see also Woodrow, Raymond J. - see also Ser. II, Patents OSRD-Princeton Univ. contracts; French claim re: A-bomb patent

Anderson, S. E.
1952 
Andrew, G. C.
  

- see American Physical Soc.

Andrews, John Paul
  

- see Bell, Bernard Iddings

Angas, W. Mack
1956 
Angell, Ernest
  

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Apgar, F. R.
1942 

- see also Stewart, Irvin

Arkadiev, G.
  

- see Ser. II, Soviet Trip

Armour, Alexander W.
1945 
Armstrong, Hamilton Fish
  

- see Foreign Affairs - see Ser. VII, History of the H-Bomb

Armstrong, Jack L.
1954 

press release on element 99

Armstrong, Sinclair W.
1948-51; n.d. 

- Lindsay, R. B. - see also Oppenheimer security clearance

Arneson, Bruce
  

- see Penfield, J. K.

Arneson, R. Gordon
1950; 1951 

- Bacher, Robert F. - see also Ser. III, General Advisory Committee... British reaction to "gadget" testing

Arnikar, H. J.
1946 
Arnold, [?]
1955 
Arnold, David R. J.
1977 
Arnold, J. H.
1945 

- Taylor, Hugh S. Smyth Report revisions

Arnold, Melvin
  

- see Ware lecture

Arnold, Richard T.
  

- see Invitations to join, attend; assignments to write

Arons, David
  

- see Gimbel Brothers

Arrotta, Frank J.
1954 
Artin, Emil
1956 
Astin, A. V.
  

- see American Inst. of Physics - see Sawyer, Ralph A.

Astin, Allen V.
  

- see Ser. IV, Study Group

Aston, M. J.
  

- see U.S. Naval Medical School

Atlanta Architect-Engineer Associates
  

- see Creighton, William J.

Atomic Energy Comm. HDS consultant to
1956-60 

- Anderson, Roland A. - Bishop, Amasa S. - Cook, R. W. - Davis, W. Kenneth - Dean, Gordon - Fields, Kenneth E. - Fine, Paul C. - Floberg, John F. - Gunn, Ross - Hall, John A. - Heslep, Charter - Hewlett, Richard G. - Lane, Earl F. - Libby, Willard F. - McCone, John A. - McCool, Woodford B. - McCullough, C. Rogers - McDaniel, Paul W. - McQuown, Evelyn C. - Marin, James - Ruark, Arthur E. - Ryan, Alvin F. - Smith, Oscar S. - Spiegel, George C. - Strauss, Lewis L. - Tackman, Arthur L. - Tammaro, Al - Traynor, Harry S. - Vander Weyden, A. J. - Williams, John H. - Wilson, Robert E.

Atomic Energy Comm. Miscellaneous correspondence
1955-61 
Atomic Energy Comm. national laboratories. The future of
1959-60 

- Anderson, Clinton P. - Austin, James B. - Brown, G. Edwin, Jr. - Davis, W. Kenneth - Gottlieb, Melvin B. - Luedecke, A. R. - McCone, John A. - McCune, Francis K. - Parsegian, V. L. - Price, Melvin - Ramey, James T. - Robbins, Charles - Spitzer, Lyman, Jr. - Tammaro, Al - White, Milton G. - Wilson, Carroll L. JCAE hearings on role of AEC labs

Atomic Energy Comm. Shippingport Project
1959-60 

- Anderson, Clinton P. - Biles, Alice J. - Fleger, Philip A. - Floberg, John F. - Geiger, Lawton D. - Grahl, James L. - Gray, John E. - Kintner, E. E. - McCone, John A. - Peterson, W. S. - Ramey, James T. - Sporn, Philip - Tammaro, Al - Weaver, Charles H. - Wigner, Eugene P. atomic power station

Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc.
1955-72 

- Austin, James B. - Brown, G. Edwin, Jr. - Burt, John - Fairman, James F. - Iddles, Alfred - Likely, Wadsowrth - McCluskey, Robert J. - McCune, Francis K. - Robbins, Charles - Stumpf, John H. - Townsend, Oliver - Wiggin, Edwin

Atoms for Peace Award, Inc. Trustees of
1960-69 
Atoms for Power
1958 
Atomwirtschaft-atomtechnik
1967 

- Heisenberg, [Werner?] - MÜller, Wolfgang D. some in German

Atterbury, Boudinot
1935-49 
Atwood, Wallace W., Jr.
1957 

- see also International Union of Pure and Applied Physics - see also Ser. II, Chamber of Commerce [of the U.S.]

Aubin, E. G., Jr.
  

- see Cooper, Lewis C.

Audrieth, L. F.
1965 

- see also Ser. IV, General Conference #9

Austin, James B.
  

- see Atomic Energy Comm. national laboratories. The future of - see Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc.

Ausubel, Herman
1950 
Avakian, A. S.
1945 

Smyth Report; converting U-238 to Pu

Axel, Peter
1949 

re: security clearance

Axford, C. B.
  

- see Ser. VIA, Work of the AEC. The

Axtmann, R. C.
  

- see Ser. III, Idaho SL-1 Reactor Accident

Aydelotte, Frank
1942-45 

- see also Ser. II, Brookhaven National Laboratory (Associated Univ.) OSRD, Princeton physics dept. staffing during WWII

Babb, James T.
1963 Box Series I: 4
Babcock, Dale F.
1964 

xenon poisoning in Chicago reactor

Babcock, W. R.
1956 

- Carll, M. L.

Bacher, Robert F.
1949-68 

- see also Arneson, R. Gordon - see also Edison Electric Inst. Tech. Appraisal Task Force on Nuclear Power - see also Oppenheimer security clearance - see also Universities Research Association, Inc. - see also Ser. III, Scientific manpower - see also Ser. V, Envelope 1 - Bacher, R. F. - see also Ser. XI, Smyth, Charles P.

Back, Gunnar
1954 

- see also Invitations to speak - see also Ser. IX, Edrington, Thomas C.

Bacon, Leonard L.
1965-70 

- see also Universities Research Association, Inc. - see also Wilson, O. Meredith

Baffour, R. P.
1964 
Bahmer, Robert H.
1967 
Bailey, George W.
1942-45 

- Brakeley, George A. OSRD contract no. OEMsr-1209

Bailey, Headley E.
1929 
Bailey, Herbert S., Jr.
1947-84 

- Condon, Edward U. - Mitgang, Herbert - Ober, Shatswell - Scribner, Charles - Williams, Robert Chadwell - see also American Physical Society - see also Goheen, Robert F. - see also Jet Propulsion Publications Program - see also Joseph Henry Center - see also Ser. II, Princeton University Press - see also Ser. VIII, "The `Smyth Report' " HDS on editorial board for Princeton Univ. Press

Bainbridge, Kenneth T.
  

- Birch, Francis - Kistiakowsky, George B. - New York Times - Ramsey, Norman F. - Zacharias, Jerrold R.

Folder #1
1946-49 

equivalence of mass & energy

Folder #2
1950-54 

Trinity test

Baitsell, George A.
1946-48 

- Pegram, George B. Sigma Xi

Baker, Carlos H.
1956 
Baker, Charles P.
  

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Baker, Frank C.
1954 
Baker, J. F.
  

- see Pemberton, Viola P.

Baker, Louis C. W.
  

- see Invitations to speak

Baker, William O.
1965-68 

- see also Goheen, Robert F. - see also Ser. II, Chamber of Commerce [of the U.S.]

Bakker, Cornelis J.
1954 
Balderston, Jack
1945 

- Gruen, Dieter - McLean, William - Wehmeyer, David control of atomic energy

Baldwin, Hanson W.
  

- see Ser. II, Council on Foreign Relations. National Power...

Ball, George W.
  

- see Trapnell, Edward R.

Ball, Thomas F.
1955 

- see also Invitations to speak

Ballard, Stanley S.
1961-62 
Balligand, P.
  

- see Thomas, Charles W.

Ballinger, R. Maxil
1953-55 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co.
1956-57 

- Turnbull, Douglas C., Jr.

Bank of New York
1946-62; n.d. 

- Biggs, William R. - Kingsley, Clifford P. - McRae, [?] - Troxell, Thomas F., Jr. - Woolley, Samuel H.

Bannier, J. H.
1952 
Bard, Philip
  

- see Gellhorn, Walter

Bardeen, John
  

- see American Physical Soc.

Bargmann, V.
  

- see American Physical Soc.

Barker, Joseph W.
1947-57 

- Dodds, Harold W.

Barkow, Arthur G.
1949-50 
Barley, Rex
  

- see Mirror. The

Barlow, Robert
1961-62 

- see also Zuckert, Eugene M.

Barnard, Chester I.
  

- see Dodds, Harold W. - see Ser. IX, Report on the international...

Barnes, Carl E.
1956-57 

- see also Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M) 3M Co. & atomic energy

Barnhart, A. M.
n.d. 

obituaries

Barnitz, Eric
  

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Baron, Richard
1955 

HDS photo

Barr, [?]
1956 

- Meehan, [?] - see also Princeton University. Advisory Comm. on Computer Problems IBM 650 & DATATRON machines

Barron's
1959 
Barschall, Heinz H.
1954 

- Kruger, P. Gerald - Zinn, W. H. - see also Oppenheimer security clearance Midwest Univ. Research Assoc. (MURA)

Barton, Henry A.
1944-64 

- Waterfall, Wallace - see also American Inst. of Physics - see also American Inst. of Physics. Soc. of Exploration Geophysicists - see also American Inst. of Physics. Special Committee - see also American Physical Soc. - see also Breit, Gregory - see also Oppenheimer security clearance - see also Sawyer, Ralph A.

Baruch, Bernard M.
1950; 1951 

- see also Tolman, Richard C. - see also Ser. VIA, Stockpiling and rationing of scientific manpower

Bass, Robert Perkins
  

- see Ser. II, Dublin (N.H.) Conference

Bassett, Preston R.
1958 

- see also American Physical Soc.

Baubie, James A.
  

- see Ser. VIA, Westinghouse 10th annual science talent search banquet...

Baxter, Philip
1969 
Baxter, William J.
1953 

- Huston, Vincent G.

Bayer, Lawrence H.
  

- see Schroeter, J. C.

Beach, Hugh D.
  

- see Newsweek

Beacon Press, Inc.
1955 

- Shepherd, Mary Ann

Beadle, George W.
  

- see Bonner, David - see Ser. II, First Nuclear Chain Reaction...

Beams, Jesse W.
1957-58 

- see also American Physical Soc. - see also American Physical Soc. Comm. on Cooperation w/ Secondary Schools

Bean, Louis H.
1953 

effect of atomic bomb on tornadoes

Bechhoefer, Bernard G.
  

- see Ser. VIII, Need for international...

Bechtel, S. D.
1985 
Beck, Clifford K.
  

- see Johnson, Thomas H.

Beck, Martin
1945-52; n.d. 

- Brakeley, George A. - Condit, Kenneth H. - Myers, George A. - see also Beckwith, Herbert L.

Becker, Joseph A.
1954 
Beckerley, James G.
1950-61 

- Hafstad, Lawrence R. - Jackson, J. Frank - Johnson, Thomas H. - Lewis, W. B. - Nichols, Kenneth D. - Spitzer, Lyman, Jr. - Thorton, R. L. - see also Bethe, Hans A. - see also Fermi, Enrico - see also Johnson, Warren C. - see also Joint Committee on Atomic Energy - see also Lewis, W. B. - see also Platt, Joseph B. - see also Seaborg, Glenn T. declassification of isotron work

Beckerman, Hyman
  

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Beckwith, Herbert L.
1943-45 

- Beck, Martin - Brakeley, George A. - Delsasso, Lewis A. - Farina, W. A. - Mills, Gail A. - Schwartz, P. - see also Tuve, Merle A. OSRD contracts w/ Palmer Lab

Beckworth, [?]
1951 
Beehler, Albert
  

- see American Physical Soc.

Beeler, G. W.
  

- see Ser. II, Brookhaven National Laboratory (Associated Universities)

Beers, Norman R.
  

- see Nucleonics

Beggs, George E.
  

- see Nichols, M. H.

Belanger, J. W.
  

- see General Electric Company

Belkin, L.
1959 
Bell, Bernard Iddings
1947 

- Andrews, John Paul

Bell, Kathleen
1962 
Bell, Ulric
1945 
Bell, Whitfield J., Jr.
1986 

- see also American Philosophical Society - see also Joseph Henry Center

Bellamy, Winthrop
1946 
Bellow, Susan
  

- see Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Belmore, Frederick M.
  

- see Mallinckrodt Chemical Works

Benardete, M. J.
  

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Bender, George H.
1953 

- Strauss, Lewis L. congressional study of AEC Portsmouth Project

Bendetsen, Karl R.
1952 
Benedict, Manson
1957-68 

- see also Edison Electric Inst. Tech. Appraisal Task Force on Nuclear Power - see also Fermi, Enrico. Award

Bengelsdorf, Harold D.
1965-72 

- see also Ser. IV, [Resignation scrapbook]

Benjamin, Robert S.
  

- see Davis, W. Kenneth

Bennett, Bradley F.
  

- see Universities Research Association, Inc.

Bennett, C. A.
  

- see Ser. IV, Nonproliferation Treaty

Bennett, Clarence E.
1949 
Bennett, Frank P.
  

- see Ser. VIA, Work of the AEC. The

Bennett, Ralph D.
1940-64 
Bennett, William J.
1951 
Benoit-Smullyan, Emile
1955 

pamplet "Conditions of Disarmament"

Benson, Bruce B.
  

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Berg, Samuel
1957 

- Brown, J. Douglas

Bergman, Lewis
  

- see Invitations to join, attend; assignments to write - see New York Times

Bergsma, Daniel
1958 
Berkner, Lloyd V.
1951-54 

- Dean, Gordon - see also Council on Foreign Relations - see also Weinberg, Alvin M.

Berman, Morris
1954 

- Alger, Richard W. - Derry, John A.

Berman, Saul
1955 
Berry, E. Willard
1952 
Berry, George P.
1960-64 
Besançon, Robert M.
1964 

- see also Invitations to join, attend; assignments to write

Bethe, Hans A.
1950-68 

- Beckerley, James G. - Borden, William L. - Piel, Girard - Salisbury, Morse - Trapnell, Edward R. - Wilson, Carroll L. - see also American Physical Soc. - see also Ser. II, Blair-Shepley book: The Hydrogen Bomb much technical info. on H-bomb (orig. classified in 1950)

Betteiv, Straughan Lowe
  

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Bettman, Iphigene M.
  

- see Invitations to speak

Bettman, Jean F.
  

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Betts, A. W.
1960 
Bevans, Samuel N.
1958 

- see also Edison Electric Inst. Tech. Appraisal Task Force on Nuclear Power

Bevis, Howard L.
1958 
Beyer, Carol
1949 
Bhabha, Homi J.
1949-52 Box Series I: 5

- see also Ser. IV, Tarapur Project AEC of India

Biehl, Arthur T.
  

- see Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M)

Bigelow, Julian H.
1958 

- see also Institute for Advanced Study - see also Princeton University. Advisory Comm. on Computer Problems

Biggs, William R.
1949 

- see also Bank of New York

Biles, Alice J.
  

- see Atomic Energy Comm. Shippingport Project

Bill, Edward C.
1950 
Billig, [?]
1966 
Billig, Wilhelm
  

- see Jablonski, Henryk

Billings, Bruce
  

- see American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Billings, O. B.
1955 

- see also Johnson and Johnson

Bingham, Gordon McD.
  

- see Universities Research Association, Inc.

Biographical Encyclopedia of the World
1946 
Biondi, Manfred A.
1960 
Birch, Francis
  

- see Bainbridge, Kenneth T.

Birchenall, C. Ernest
1956 

- see also Joseph Henry Center - see also Princeton University. Comm. on Proj. Research & Inventions

Birge, Raymond T.
  

- see American Inst. of Physics. Soc. of Exploration Geophysicists

Bishop, Amasa S.
1955-69 

- Eklund, Sigvard - see also Atomic Energy Comm. HDS consultant to controlled fusion research, family photo

Bishop, Joseph B.
1956 

- see also Invitations to speak

Bistline, Pete
1954 
Black, Cyril E.
  

- see Goheen, Robert F.

Black, George
1955 
Black, J. B.
  

- see Edison Electric Inst. Tech. Appraisal Task Force on Nuclear Power

Black, James
  

- see Ser. III, Reactor Policies and Programs...

Blackett, [?]
  

- see Szilard, Leo

Blackett, Patrick M. S.
1923-60 
Blaha, Ales
1957 

- see also American Physical Soc.

Blaisdell, Warren
  

- see Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Blake, Marian G.
  

- see Adirondack League Club

Blatt, John
  

- see Weisskopf, Victor F.

Bleakney, Walker
1944-77 

- Brakeley, George A. - Hall, John A. - Harris, Leigh - McDaniel, Paul W. - see also Goheen, Robert F. - see also Princeton University. Comm. on Proj. Research & Inventions - see also Princeton University. Cyclotron - see also Princeton University. Physics Department - see also Universities Research Association, Inc. nuclear physics at Princeton

Blecheisen, Jacob
1957 
Bliven, Bruce
1945 
Blix, Hans
1981; 1983 

- Glennan, T. Keith - see also Glennan, T. Keith - see also Ser. XI, Smyth, Charles P.

Blizard, Everitt P.
1962 

- see also Invitations to join, attend; assignments to write

Block, Paul, Jr.
1958; 1959 
Bloembergen, N.
  

- see American Physical Soc.

Blood, Howard E.
  

- see Ser. II, National Science Foundation

Blosser, Henry
  

- see Princeton University. Cyclotron

Blucher, Walter H.
  

- see Towne, Carroll A.

Blum, Jerome
1968 
Blythe, Richard
  

- see RCA/Princeton graduate program

Boe, Katherine
1941; 1942 
Bogdonoff, Seymour M.
1956 

- see also Chandler, Lester V. - see also Princeton University. Comm. on Proj. Research & Inventions

Bohm, David
1951-1952 

- Shenstone, Allen G.

Bohnenblust, Eleanor and Frederick
1945 
Bohr, Niels
  

- see American Physical Soc.

Bolling, Richard
1954 
Bonesteel, Charles H.
  

- see Ser. II, Council on Foreign Relations. Nuclear...Strategic...

Bonnell, Allen T.
1951 
Bonner, David
1952 

- Beadle, G. W. - Warren, Shields re: security clearance

Boos, Ralph
1955 
Borden, William L.
1954 

- see also Bethe, Hans A. - see also Joint Committee on Atomic Energy

Borders, A. M.
1956 

- see also Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M)

Borgmann, Carl
1966 
Borst, Lyle
1951-57 

- Dean, Gordon - Eisenhower, Dwight D. - Johnson, Thomas H. - Olpin, A. Ray - Strauss, Lewis L. - see also Ser. II, Brookhaven National Laboratory (Associated Univ.) Univ. of Utah reactor; Convergatron

Boskey, Bennett
1951-58 

- see also Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M) - see also Tennessee Valley Authority - see also Ser. III, Scientific manpower - see also Ser. VIII, Need for international...

Boswell, Elizabeth M.
1949-61 

- Kirkman, Robert W. - McQuown, Evelyn C. - see also Lewis, Robert W. - see also McQuown, Evelyn C. list of docs. destroyed by HDS order

Boswell, George
1961 
Bowen, Bill
  

- see Ser. XI, Smyth, Charles P.

Bowen, Dwain Burns
  

- see RCA/Princeton graduate program

Bowen, H. G.
  

- see Busse, Paul

Bowen, Howard R.
  

- see Universities Research Association, Inc.

Bowen, I. S.
  

- see Lederer, Ludwig G.

Bowker, R. C.
1944 

- see also Brakeley, George A. property inventories for OSRD-Princeton Univ. contracts

Bowles, Edward L.
1947 
Bowles, Frank H.
  

- see Dodds, Harold W.

Bowman, Clell Edgar
1945 

Smyth Report-mechanical packings

Bowman, Isaiah
  

- see Macaulay, P. Stewart

Bowman, J. C.
1965 

- see also Invitations to speak

Box, G. E. P.
  

- see Princeton University. Advisory Comm. on Computer Problems

Boyce, Joseph C.
1936-51 

- see also Loomis, F. Wheeler - see also Loughridge, D. H.

Boyce, Thomas K.
1955 
Boyd, George A.
1957 

- Fox, Arthur E.

Boyd, Julian Parks
1945-69 

- see also Oppenheimer security clearance

Boyer, Karl
1950-51 

- Pitzer, Kenneth S. Smyth Report-porous barriers

Boyer, Marion Willard
1950-53 

- Campbell, Walker E. - Glennan, T. Keith - Oppenheimer, J. Robert - see also Edison Electric Inst. Tech. Appraisal Task Force on Nuclear Power - see also Glennan, T. Keith - see also Hafstad, Lawrence R. - see also Kiley, J. P. - see also Langmuir, David B. - see also McCormack, James, Jr. - see also Oppenheimer security clearance - see also Pitzer, Kenneth S. - see also Schroeter, J. C. - see also Strauss, Lewis L. - see also Zuckert, Eugene M. - see also Ser. III, Reactor Policies and Programs...

Boysen, Bigelow
1956 
Brace, James H.
  

- see Thompson, Shelby

Bradbury, Norris E.
1949-60 

- Alvarez, Luis - Buchta, J. W. - Critchfield, Charles L. - Long, Earl A. - McCormack, James, Jr. - Shenstone, Allen G. - Wigner, Eugene P. - Zinn, W. H. - see also American Physical Soc. - see also Oppenheimer security clearance - see also Russell, James S. - see also Seitz, Frederick - see also Shenstone, Allen G. - see also Ser. II, Blair-Shepley book: The Hydrogen Bomb cryogenics at LASL; recruitment of scientists to work on H-bomb

Bradd, A. A.
1949 
Bradford, E. B.
1940-42 

- Dix, Howard W. - Tolman, Richard C. - Wilson, Carroll L.

Bradley, Bill
1986 

arms control

Brady, Edward L.
1961-68 

- Sporn, Philip - Trapnell, Edward R. - see also Cosmos Club - see also Creutz, Edward C. - see also Ser. IV, Committee on U.S. policy toward IAEA - see also Ser. IV, Study Group

Brady, Joseph J.
1953 
Brady, Thomas
  

- see Invitations to speak

Brakeley, George A.
  

- Bowker, R. C. - Compton, Karl Taylor - Delsasso, Lewis A. - Dodds, Harold W. - Donovan, James B. - Fairlamb, H. L. - Jessup, Walter A. - Lacey, John S. - Lavender, Robert A. - Meyers, George R. - Mills, Gail A. - Norcross, Cleveland - Oncken, William - Robertson, Howard P. - Stewart, Irvin - Stewart, R. B. - Tuve, Merle A. - Woodrow, Raymond J. - Young, Wilbur M. - see also Bailey, George W. - see also Beck, Martin - see also Beckwith, Herbert L. - see also Bleakney, Walker - see also Burchard, John E. - see also Bush, Vannevar - see also Faris, Marvin L. - see also Groves, Leslie R. - see also Hafstad, Lawrence R. - see also Hopkins, D. Luke - see also Lacey, John S. - see also Lavender, Robert A. - see also Norcross, Cleveland - see also Olsen, Elvin E. - see also Pippin, R. E. - see also Roberts, W. van B. - see also Smith, Lincoln G. - see also Stewart, Irvin - see also Wigner, Eugene P. - see also Ser. II, Associated Universities, Inc. - see also Ser. II, Brookhaven National Laboratory (Associated Universities) - see also Ser. II, National Science Foundation - see also Ser. II, Princeton University. OSRD...Sub-contract... - see also Ser. II, Princeton University Press funding of OSRD contracts w/ Princeton, Purdue, MIT; patent rights

Folder #1
1940-41 
Folder #2
Jan. - Mar. 1942 
Folder #3
Apr. - Jun. 1942 
Folder #4
Jul. - Nov. 1942 
Folder #5
Dec. 1942-43 
Folder #6
1944-53 

construction of accelerator at Princeton

Bramble, Glenn C.
1945 

corrections to Smyth Report

Brasefield, Charles J.
1954-63 
Brasher, W. K.
  

- see American Physical Soc.

Braswell, Lynn
1957 
Brattain, R. Robert
1955 

proposed changes to Journal of Chemical Physics

Bray, N. T.
  

- see Geneva Conference. Committee to read papers

Breck, R. Park
1945 
Breese, Gerald
  

- see Ser. II, Princeton University Press

Breit, Gregory
  

- Barton, Henry A. - Buchta, J. W. - Eckart, [?] - Fermi, Enrico - Hafstad, Lawrence R. - Szilard, Leo - Turner, Louis A. - Urey, Harold C. - Wheeler, John Archibald - Wigner, Eugene P. - Wilson, Robert R. - see also American Physical Soc. - see also American Physical Soc. Comm. on Cooperation w/ Secondary Schools - see also Eisenhart, Luther P. - see also Turner, Louis A. - see also Wheeler, John Archibald - see also Wilson, Robert R. - see also Ser. V, Envelope 1 - Breit, Gregory uranium project

Folder #1
1940 
Folder #2
1941-54 
Brennan, Lorna
  

- see Council on Foreign Relations

Brennan, T.
1945-47 
Brenner, F. L.
  

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Bretscher, Egon (Mrs.)
1963 
Brewington, G. P.
1950-51 
Brickman, L.
  Box Series I: 6

- see Johnson and Johnson

Brickwedde, Dean
1957 

- see also American Physical Soc.

Bridgman, P. W.
1953 
Briggs, Lewis C.
1947 
Briggs, Lyman J.
  

- Smith, Lloyd P. - see also Conant, James B. - see also Wheeler, John Archibald - see also Ser. V, Envelope 1 - Briggs, Lyman J. - see also Ser. V, Envelope 1a - Lavender's office, Captain. Memo of visit to NDRC; uranium project

Folder #1
1941 
Folder #2
1942-46 

OSRD list of reports, 1941-42

Brinner, H. A.
  

- see Mallinckrodt Chemical Works

Brobeck, Wayne P.
1955; 1956; 1961 
Brobeck, William M.
  

- see Joint Committee on Atomic Energy - see Princeton University. Cyclotron

Brode, Bernice
1953 
Brode, Robert B.
1947-59 

- see also International Union of Pure and Applied Physics - see also Oppenheimer security clearance cosmic ray project; International Union

Brode, Wallace R.
1958-59 
Brolley, John E.
1971 
Bronk, Detlev W.
1947-57 

- see also American Physical Soc.

Brooke, Z. N.
  

- see University of Cambridge

Brookes, William J.
  

- see Invitations to speak

Brookfield, H. M.
1953 
Brookhaven National Laboratory
1955; 1961 
Brookings Institution. The
1962 

- Lansdown, Brenda

Brooks, Harvey
1959 

- see also Ser. III, Reactor Policies and Programs... Oak Ridge/breeder situation

Brooks, Kennedy C.
  

- see Universities Research Association, Inc.

Brooks, Paul
1954 

- see also Houghton Mifflin Company

Brooks, Van Wyck
  

- see Invitations to speak

Brown, Alfred Seely
1945 
Brown, Barrett
1953 
Brown, Francis
  

- see Invitations to join, attend; assignments to write

Brown, G. Edwin, Jr.
1962 

- see also Atomic Energy Comm. national laboratories. The future of - see also Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. - see also Princeton University. Physics Department - see also Ser. III, Idaho SL-1 Reactor Accident

Brown, H. S.
  

- see Tolman, Richard C.

Brown, Howard C., Jr.
1961-68 

- Seaborg, Glenn T. - see also Hall, John A. - see also Reichardt, Charles H. - see also Zuckert, Eugene M.

Brown, J. Douglas
  

- Elgin, J. C. - Goheen, Robert F. - Howell, Samuel C. - Perkins, C. D. - Spitzer, Lyman, Jr. - Summerfield, Martin - Test, A. L. - Woodrow, Raymond J. - see also Berg, Samuel - see also Goheen, Robert F. - see also Joseph Henry Center - see also Princeton University. Comm. on Proj. Research & Inventions - see also Princeton University. Physics Department - see also Seamans, Robert C., Jr. - see also Shubik, Martin Princeton

Folder #1
1949-59 
Folder #2
1960-62 
Folder #3
1963-65 
Folder #4
1966 
Brown, J. Moreau
  

- see American Physical Soc.

Brown, John
1955 
Brown, Keirn C.
  

- see Ser. II, Brookhaven National Laboratory (Associated Universities)

Brown, M. E.
  

- see Gale Research Company

Brown, Stuart Gerry
  

- see Syracuse University

Brown, T. Wistar
  

- see Joseph Henry Center

Browne, Harry L.
1952 
Brownell, F. H.
1950; 1951 
Brownson, Helen L.
1958 

- see also American Inst. of Physics

Broyles, Arthur A.
  

- see American Physical Soc.

Brynielsson, Harry
1952 
Buchan, Alastair
  

- see Eklund, Sigvard

Buchanan, John G.
1964 
Buchanan, Robert K.
  

- see Universities Research Association, Inc.

Buchta, J. W.
1944-63 

- see also American Inst. of Physics - see also Bradbury, Norris E. - see also Breit, Gregory - see also Dodds, Harold W. - see also Winckler, John R. HDS editing for "Physical Review"

Buck, [?]
  
Buckley, Oliver
  

- see Waterman, Alan T.

Buckley, S. W.
  

- see Salisbury, Morse

Budd, Edward G., Jr.
1959 
Buddington, A. F.
  

- see Oppenheimer security clearance

Buell, William A.
1952 
Buetow, H. P.
  

- see Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M)

Buffalo, Harvey A.
  

- see International Union of Pure and Applied Physics

Buggs, Benjamin
  

- see Buggs, [Katie]

Buggs, [Katie]
1959 

- Buggs, Benjamin

Bugher, John C.
  

- see Hall, John A. - see Kaplan, Joseph - see Waterman, Alan T.

Bukantz, Samuel C.
1954 

- see also Invitations to speak

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
  

- Adams, Ruth S. - Allison, Helen C. - Bellow, Susan - Lewis, Richard S. - Rabinowitch, Eugene - Shils, Edward A. - Simpson, John - Smith, Alice Kimball (Mrs. Cyril) - Swanson, Edgar

Folder #1
1951-53; 1956 
Folder #2
1957-61 
Bundy, McGeorge
  

- see Ser. II, Council on Foreign Relations. Nuclear...Strategic...

Bunting, Mary I.
  

- see Coyle, Dan D.

Burch, Alan F.
  

- see Rabi, I. I.

Burchard, John E.
1941-44 

- Brakeley, George A. - Dodds, Harold W. - Mayo, George NDRC rent pd. to Princeton

Burden, William
1964 
Burford, W. B., III
  

- see Macaulay, P. Stewart

Burger, Ralph W.
1962 
Burke, Edward J.
1963 
Burke, J. E.
  

- see Johnson, Warren C.

Burleigh, Nathaniel G.
  

- see Faris, Marvin L.

Burnett, Whit
1954 
Burnham, George H.
1944 

- Mulliken, Robert S. - see also American Inst. of Physics

Burns, John H.
1970 
Burrell, G. A.